AmphibiaWeb - Bufonidae
AMPHIBIAWEB

Bufonidae

629 species in 52 genera

Commonly Called True Toads


Bufo bufo
Photo by Arie van der Meijden
(Click for family gallery)

This is a large and complicated assemblage. The family Bufonidae is composed of 52 genera with a worldwide distribution, except for Australia. The only bufonid in Australia is the introduced Cane Toad (Rhinella marinus), which has become a pest and danger to local wildlife, due to its voracious appetite, large size, high fecundity, and high toxicity (it has pronounced negative effects on native Australian snakes).

This family includes the stereotypical "toad" with shortened forelimbs, hindlimbs used for walking or hopping, dry warty skin, and parotoid glands behind large eyes. Development in this group is quite varied; there are species that lay eggs in water and produce aquatic larvae, terrestrial direct developers, and the only known viviparous species of frogs, Nectophrynoides and Nimbaphrynoides occidentalis, which give birth to fully developed young toadlets.

Bufonids have potent skin toxins, some concentrated in the prominent parotoid gland behind the eyes, and can be fatal to predators when ingested. However, there is evidence for powerful potential pharmaceutical uses of these bufonid compounds, from both folk medicinal practices and in scientific research in cancer and pain treatment.

Some genera, like members of Atelopus, lack a tympanum and the middle ear column, making them "earless" but nonetheless sensitive to high frequency sounds (Womack et al 2018), leaving many questions about their physiology and evolution.

Some toad species are believed to be extinct, including the famous Golden Toad (Incilius periglenes) of Costa Rica, which was last documented in 1989. Other species listed as Extinct by IUCN include Atelopus longirostris and Atelopus vogli.

This specious group has been subject to many phylogenetic studies over the years, some taking a comprehensive anuran approach or others focusing on regional or specific clades in attempts to propose a supported monophyletic taxonomy for bufonids. However, the diversity of over 600 species of bufonids have been a challenge to find stable consensus.

News Highlights:

February 15, 2021: The mystery of anuran middle ear loss has new insights! Most frogs have a tympanic membrane and middle ear column (the columella) that help them hear airborne sound. Despite being well known for their calls, many frogs and toads are “earless”, lacking the tympanic membrane and columella. The factors contributing to more than 38 evolutionary losses of the anuran ear remain unknown. Recently, Stynoski et al. 2020 raised and examined two earless toad species and two closely-related eared toad species. To their surprise, they found the middle ear column started to develop right on-time in both eared and earless species! However, in earless species, the middle ear column abruptly arrests development and remains either stagnant and very small or is completely resorbed. This means that the genetic and developmental mechanisms that initiate middle ear differentiation are intact in earless species but perhaps changes in timing or expression of biochemical pathways that regulate the extension or differentiation of the columella after metamorphosis underlie convergent trait loss among toad lineages. Earless frogs are helping biologists understand the evolutionary and developmental mechanisms of trait loss; this discovery of developmental ear remnants further shows that lost traits are often not lost entirely. Their findings join many other studies that have found developmental remnants of lost traits, recently reviewed by Sadier et al. 2021. Studying development reveals key insights into evolutionary processes and this is certainly the case with earless frogs. (DW)

Written by AmphibiaWeb

Notable Family Characteristics

  • Occurs in a variety of habitats, from deserts to tropical rainforests
  • Reproductive modes vary from egg-laying in water bodies which hatch into free-living tadpoles to direct development to ovoviparity to viviparity
  • Some species display sexual dimorphism (such as larger females) or sexual dichromatism (such as more colorful males during breeding season)
  • Characters shared within the family are: 1) Bidder's organ present; 2) teeth absent from upper and lower jaws; 3) constrictor posterior muscle absent; 4) depressor mandibulae muscle originating solely from the squamosal; 5) inguinal fat bodies present; 6) skull highly ossified (usually skin is ossified to the skull).
  • Distribution is worldwide, except for Australia, Oceania, where the Marine Toad Rhinella marina have been introduced
Bufonidae Richness map

Cartography Credit: Zoe Yoo, UC Berkeley
Range maps sources: AmphibiaWeb, UC Berkeley, and IUCN RedList

Relevant Reference

Pough, F. H., R. M. Andrews, M. L. Crump, A. H. Savitzky, K. D. Wells, and M. C. Brandley. 2015. Herpetology. Fourth Edition. Massachusetts: Sinauer.

Womack MC, Christensen-Dalsgaard J, Coloma LA, Hoke KL. 2018. Sensitive high-frequency hearing in earless and partially eared harlequin frogs (Atelopus). J Exp Biol. 221(Pt 10):jeb169664. doi: 10.1242/jeb.169664.

Genus Adenomus (2 species)
Adenomus kandianus account photos no sound/video
Adenomus kelaartii account photos no sound/video

Genus Altiphrynoides (2 species)
Altiphrynoides malcolmi account no photos no sound/video
Altiphrynoides osgoodi account no photos no sound/video

Genus Amazophrynella (13 species)
Amazophrynella amazonicola no account no photos no sound/video
Amazophrynella bilinguis no account no photos no sound/video
Amazophrynella bokermanni no account photos no sound/video
Amazophrynella gardai account no photos no sound/video
Amazophrynella javierbustamantei no account no photos no sound/video
Amazophrynella manaos no account photos no sound/video
Amazophrynella matses no account no photos no sound/video
Amazophrynella minuta account photos sound/video
Amazophrynella moisesii no account photos no sound/video
Amazophrynella siona no account photos no sound/video
Amazophrynella teko no account no photos no sound/video
Amazophrynella vote no account photos no sound/video
Amazophrynella xinguensis no account no photos no sound/video

Genus Anaxyrus (25 species)
Anaxyrus americanus account photos no sound/video
Anaxyrus baxteri account photos no sound/video
Anaxyrus boreas account photos sound/video
Anaxyrus californicus account photos sound/video
Anaxyrus canorus account photos sound/video
Anaxyrus cognatus account photos sound/video
Anaxyrus compactilis no account photos no sound/video
Anaxyrus debilis account photos sound/video
Anaxyrus exsul account photos sound/video
Anaxyrus fowleri account photos sound/video
Anaxyrus hemiophrys account photos no sound/video
Anaxyrus houstonensis account photos no sound/video
Anaxyrus kelloggi account photos no sound/video
Anaxyrus mexicanus no account no photos no sound/video
Anaxyrus microscaphus account photos sound/video
Anaxyrus monfontanus no account photos no sound/video
Anaxyrus nelsoni account photos sound/video
Anaxyrus nevadensis no account no photos no sound/video
Anaxyrus punctatus account photos sound/video
Anaxyrus quercicus account photos no sound/video
Anaxyrus retiformis account photos sound/video
Anaxyrus speciosus account photos no sound/video
Anaxyrus terrestris account photos no sound/video
Anaxyrus williamsi no account no photos no sound/video
Anaxyrus woodhousii account photos sound/video

Genus Ansonia (36 species)
Ansonia albomaculata no account photos no sound/video
Ansonia echinata no account photos no sound/video
Ansonia endauensis account no photos no sound/video
Ansonia fuliginea no account photos no sound/video
Ansonia glandulosa no account no photos no sound/video
Ansonia guibei no account no photos no sound/video
Ansonia hanitschi no account photos no sound/video
Ansonia inthanon account photos no sound/video
Ansonia jeetsukumarani account photos no sound/video
Ansonia kanak no account no photos no sound/video
Ansonia kelabitensis no account no photos no sound/video
Ansonia khaochangensis no account no photos no sound/video
Ansonia kraensis no account photos no sound/video
Ansonia kyaiktiyoensis no account no photos no sound/video
Ansonia latidisca no account photos no sound/video
Ansonia latiffi no account photos no sound/video
Ansonia latirostra account no photos no sound/video
Ansonia leptopus no account photos no sound/video
Ansonia longidigita no account photos no sound/video
Ansonia lumut no account no photos no sound/video
Ansonia malayana no account photos no sound/video
Ansonia mcgregori no account no photos no sound/video
Ansonia minuta no account photos no sound/video
Ansonia muelleri no account photos no sound/video
Ansonia penangensis no account no photos no sound/video
Ansonia phuketensis no account no photos no sound/video
Ansonia pilokensis no account no photos no sound/video
Ansonia platysoma no account photos no sound/video
Ansonia siamensis no account no photos no sound/video
Ansonia smeagol account no photos no sound/video
Ansonia spinulifer no account photos no sound/video
Ansonia teneritas no account photos no sound/video
Ansonia thinthinae account photos no sound/video
Ansonia tiomanica no account no photos no sound/video
Ansonia torrentis no account photos no sound/video
Ansonia vidua no account no photos no sound/video

Genus Atelopus (100 species)
Atelopus andinus account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus angelito account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus ardila no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus arsyecue no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus arthuri account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus balios no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus barbotini account photos no sound/video
Atelopus bomolochos no account photos no sound/video
Atelopus boulengeri no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus carauta no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus carbonerensis no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus carrikeri account photos no sound/video
Atelopus certus no account photos no sound/video
Atelopus chiriquiensis account photos no sound/video
Atelopus chirripoensis no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus chocoensis no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus chrysocorallus no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus coynei account photos no sound/video
Atelopus cruciger account photos no sound/video
Atelopus dimorphus no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus ebenoides no account photos no sound/video
Atelopus elegans account photos no sound/video
Atelopus epikeisthos no account photos no sound/video
Atelopus erythropus no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus eusebianus no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus eusebiodiazi no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus exiguus account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus famelicus no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus farci no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus flavescens no account photos no sound/video
Atelopus franciscus no account photos no sound/video
Atelopus fronterizo no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus galactogaster no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus gigas no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus glyphus account photos no sound/video
Atelopus guanujo account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus guitarraensis no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus halihelos no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus hoogmoedi no account photos no sound/video
Atelopus ignescens account photos no sound/video
Atelopus laetissimus no account photos no sound/video
Atelopus limosus account photos no sound/video
Atelopus loettersi no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus longibrachius no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus longirostris account photos no sound/video
Atelopus lozanoi no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus lynchi account photos no sound/video
Atelopus manauensis no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus mandingues no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus marinkellei no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus mindoensis no account photos no sound/video
Atelopus minutulus no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus mittermeieri account photos no sound/video
Atelopus monohernandezii no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus moropukaqumir no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus mucubajiensis no account photos no sound/video
Atelopus muisca no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus nahumae no account photos no sound/video
Atelopus nanay account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus nepiozomus no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus nicefori no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus nocturnus no account photos no sound/video
Atelopus onorei account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus orcesi no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus oxapampae no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus oxyrhynchus account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus pachydermus no account photos no sound/video
Atelopus palmatus no account photos no sound/video
Atelopus pastuso no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus patazensis account photos no sound/video
Atelopus pedimarmoratus no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus peruensis account photos no sound/video
Atelopus petersi no account photos no sound/video
Atelopus petriruizi no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus pictiventris no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus pinangoi no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus planispina no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus podocarpus no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus pulcher no account photos no sound/video
Atelopus pyrodactylus no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus quimbaya no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus reticulatus no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus sanjosei no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus seminiferus account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus senex account photos no sound/video
Atelopus sernai no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus simulatus no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus siranus no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus sonsonensis no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus sorianoi account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus spumarius account photos sound/video
Atelopus spurrelli no account photos no sound/video
Atelopus subornatus no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus tamaense no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus tricolor account photos no sound/video
Atelopus varius account photos no sound/video
Atelopus vermiculatus no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus vogli account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus walkeri no account no photos no sound/video
Atelopus zeteki account photos sound/video

Genus Barbarophryne (1 species)
Barbarophryne brongersmai no account photos no sound/video

Genus Beduka (2 species)
Beduka koynayensis account photos no sound/video
Beduka tigeria account photos no sound/video

Genus Blythophryne (1 species)
Blythophryne beryet account photos no sound/video

Genus Bufo (16 species)
Bufo ailaoanus no account no photos no sound/video
Bufo aspinius no account no photos no sound/video
Bufo bankorensis account photos no sound/video
Bufo bufo account photos no sound/video
Bufo cryptotympanicus no account no photos no sound/video
Bufo eichwaldi account photos sound/video
Bufo gargarizans account photos no sound/video
Bufo japonicus account photos no sound/video
Bufo luchunnicus no account no photos no sound/video
Bufo menglianus no account no photos no sound/video
Bufo pageoti no account no photos no sound/video
Bufo spinosus account photos no sound/video
Bufo stejnegeri no account photos no sound/video
Bufo torrenticola account photos no sound/video
Bufo tuberculatus account no photos no sound/video
Bufo tuberospinius no account no photos no sound/video

Genus Bufoides (2 species)
Bufoides kempi no account no photos no sound/video
Bufoides meghalayanus no account no photos no sound/video

Genus Bufotes (15 species)
Bufotes balearicus no account photos no sound/video
Bufotes baturae no account photos no sound/video
Bufotes boulengeri account photos no sound/video
Bufotes cypriensis no account no photos no sound/video
Bufotes latastii account photos no sound/video
Bufotes luristanicus no account photos sound/video
Bufotes oblongus no account photos sound/video
Bufotes perrini no account no photos no sound/video
Bufotes pewzowi no account photos no sound/video
Bufotes pseudoraddei account photos no sound/video
Bufotes sitibundus no account photos no sound/video
Bufotes surdus account photos no sound/video
Bufotes turanensis no account photos no sound/video
Bufotes viridis account photos no sound/video
Bufotes zugmayeri no account no photos no sound/video

Genus Capensibufo (5 species)
Capensibufo deceptus no account photos no sound/video
Capensibufo magistratus no account photos no sound/video
Capensibufo rosei account no photos no sound/video
Capensibufo selenophos no account photos no sound/video
Capensibufo tradouwi no account no photos no sound/video

Genus Churamiti (1 species)
Churamiti maridadi account no photos no sound/video

Genus Dendrophryniscus (16 species)
Dendrophryniscus berthalutzae no account photos no sound/video
Dendrophryniscus brevipollicatus no account photos no sound/video
Dendrophryniscus carvalhoi no account photos no sound/video
Dendrophryniscus davori no account no photos no sound/video
Dendrophryniscus haddadi no account no photos no sound/video
Dendrophryniscus imitator no account no photos no sound/video
Dendrophryniscus izecksohni no account no photos no sound/video
Dendrophryniscus jureia no account no photos no sound/video
Dendrophryniscus krausae no account no photos no sound/video
Dendrophryniscus lauroi no account no photos no sound/video
Dendrophryniscus leucomystax no account photos no sound/video
Dendrophryniscus oreites no account photos no sound/video
Dendrophryniscus organensis no account no photos no sound/video
Dendrophryniscus proboscideus account photos no sound/video
Dendrophryniscus skuki no account no photos no sound/video
Dendrophryniscus stawiarskyi no account no photos no sound/video

Genus Didynamipus (1 species)
Didynamipus sjostedti no account photos no sound/video

Genus Duttaphrynus (28 species)
Duttaphrynus beddomii no account no photos no sound/video
Duttaphrynus brevirostris no account no photos no sound/video
Duttaphrynus chandai no account no photos no sound/video
Duttaphrynus crocus account no photos no sound/video
Duttaphrynus cyphosus no account photos no sound/video
Duttaphrynus dhufarensis no account photos no sound/video
Duttaphrynus himalayanus account photos no sound/video
Duttaphrynus hololius account photos no sound/video
Duttaphrynus kiphirensis no account no photos no sound/video
Duttaphrynus kotagamai account photos no sound/video
Duttaphrynus mamitensis no account no photos no sound/video
Duttaphrynus manipurensis no account no photos no sound/video
Duttaphrynus melanostictus account photos sound/video
Duttaphrynus microtympanum no account photos no sound/video
Duttaphrynus mizoramensis no account no photos no sound/video
Duttaphrynus nagalandensis no account no photos no sound/video
Duttaphrynus noellerti account photos no sound/video
Duttaphrynus olivaceus account photos sound/video
Duttaphrynus parietalis no account photos no sound/video
Duttaphrynus scaber account photos no sound/video
Duttaphrynus scorteccii no account no photos no sound/video
Duttaphrynus silentvalleyensis no account no photos no sound/video
Duttaphrynus stomaticus account photos no sound/video
Duttaphrynus stuarti no account photos no sound/video
Duttaphrynus sumatranus no account no photos no sound/video
Duttaphrynus totol no account no photos no sound/video
Duttaphrynus valhallae no account no photos no sound/video
Duttaphrynus wokhaensis no account no photos no sound/video

Genus Epidalea (1 species)
Epidalea calamita account photos sound/video

Genus Frostius (2 species)
Frostius erythrophthalmus no account photos no sound/video
Frostius pernambucensis no account no photos no sound/video

Genus Ghatophryne (2 species)
Ghatophryne ornata account photos no sound/video
Ghatophryne rubigina no account photos no sound/video

Genus Incilius (40 species)
Incilius alvarius account photos sound/video
Incilius aucoinae account photos no sound/video
Incilius aurarius account photos no sound/video
Incilius bocourti no account photos no sound/video
Incilius campbelli no account photos no sound/video
Incilius canaliferus no account photos no sound/video
Incilius cavifrons no account photos no sound/video
Incilius chompipe account photos no sound/video
Incilius coccifer account photos no sound/video
Incilius coniferus account photos no sound/video
Incilius cristatus no account photos no sound/video
Incilius cycladen account no photos no sound/video
Incilius epioticus no account photos no sound/video
Incilius fastidiosus account photos no sound/video
Incilius gemmifer no account no photos no sound/video
Incilius guanacaste no account no photos no sound/video
Incilius holdridgei account photos no sound/video
Incilius ibarrai account photos no sound/video
Incilius intermedius no account no photos no sound/video
Incilius karenlipsae no account no photos no sound/video
Incilius leucomyos no account photos no sound/video
Incilius luetkenii account photos no sound/video
Incilius macrocristatus no account photos no sound/video
Incilius majordomus no account no photos no sound/video
Incilius marmoreus no account photos no sound/video
Incilius mazatlanensis no account photos no sound/video
Incilius mccoyi no account photos no sound/video
Incilius melanochlorus account photos no sound/video
Incilius nebulifer account photos sound/video
Incilius occidentalis no account photos no sound/video
Incilius periglenes account photos no sound/video
Incilius peripatetes no account no photos no sound/video
Incilius perplexus no account no photos no sound/video
Incilius pisinnus account photos no sound/video
Incilius porteri account photos no sound/video
Incilius signifer account photos no sound/video
Incilius spiculatus no account photos no sound/video
Incilius tacanensis no account photos no sound/video
Incilius tutelarius no account no photos no sound/video
Incilius valliceps account photos no sound/video

Genus Ingerophrynus (12 species)
Ingerophrynus biporcatus account photos no sound/video
Ingerophrynus celebensis no account photos no sound/video
Ingerophrynus claviger no account no photos no sound/video
Ingerophrynus divergens account photos no sound/video
Ingerophrynus galeatus no account photos no sound/video
Ingerophrynus gollum no account no photos no sound/video
Ingerophrynus kumquat no account no photos no sound/video
Ingerophrynus ledongensis no account no photos no sound/video
Ingerophrynus macrotis no account photos no sound/video
Ingerophrynus parvus account photos sound/video
Ingerophrynus philippinicus no account photos no sound/video
Ingerophrynus quadriporcatus no account photos sound/video

Genus Laurentophryne (1 species)
Laurentophryne parkeri no account no photos no sound/video

Genus Leptophryne (3 species)
Leptophryne borbonica account photos sound/video
Leptophryne cruentata account photos no sound/video
Leptophryne javanica no account no photos no sound/video

Genus Melanophryniscus (30 species)
Melanophryniscus admirabilis account photos no sound/video
Melanophryniscus alipioi no account no photos no sound/video
Melanophryniscus atroluteus account photos no sound/video
Melanophryniscus biancae no account no photos no sound/video
Melanophryniscus cambaraensis no account photos no sound/video
Melanophryniscus cupreuscapularis no account photos no sound/video
Melanophryniscus devincenzii account photos no sound/video
Melanophryniscus dorsalis account photos no sound/video
Melanophryniscus estebani no account no photos no sound/video
Melanophryniscus fulvoguttatus no account no photos no sound/video
Melanophryniscus klappenbachi no account photos no sound/video
Melanophryniscus krauczuki no account photos no sound/video
Melanophryniscus langonei no account no photos no sound/video
Melanophryniscus macrogranulosus no account photos no sound/video
Melanophryniscus milanoi no account no photos no sound/video
Melanophryniscus montevidensis account photos no sound/video
Melanophryniscus moreirae no account photos no sound/video
Melanophryniscus orejasmirandai account no photos no sound/video
Melanophryniscus pachyrhynus no account no photos no sound/video
Melanophryniscus paraguayensis no account no photos no sound/video
Melanophryniscus peritus no account no photos no sound/video
Melanophryniscus rubriventris no account photos no sound/video
Melanophryniscus sanmartini account no photos no sound/video
Melanophryniscus setiba no account no photos no sound/video
Melanophryniscus simplex no account no photos no sound/video
Melanophryniscus spectabilis no account no photos no sound/video
Melanophryniscus stelzneri no account photos no sound/video
Melanophryniscus tumifrons no account photos no sound/video
Melanophryniscus vilavelhensis no account no photos no sound/video
Melanophryniscus xanthostomus no account no photos no sound/video

Genus Mertensophryne (14 species)
Mertensophryne anotis account no photos no sound/video
Mertensophryne howelli no account no photos no sound/video
Mertensophryne lindneri no account no photos no sound/video
Mertensophryne lonnbergi no account no photos no sound/video
Mertensophryne loveridgei no account no photos no sound/video
Mertensophryne melanopleura no account no photos no sound/video
Mertensophryne micranotis no account photos no sound/video
Mertensophryne mocquardi no account no photos no sound/video
Mertensophryne nairobiensis no account no photos no sound/video
Mertensophryne nyikae no account photos no sound/video
Mertensophryne schmidti no account no photos no sound/video
Mertensophryne taitana no account photos no sound/video
Mertensophryne usambarae no account no photos no sound/video
Mertensophryne uzunguensis no account no photos no sound/video

Genus Metaphryniscus (1 species)
Metaphryniscus sosai no account no photos no sound/video

Genus Nannophryne (4 species)
Nannophryne apolobambica no account no photos no sound/video
Nannophryne cophotis no account no photos no sound/video
Nannophryne corynetes no account photos no sound/video
Nannophryne variegata no account photos no sound/video

Genus Nectophryne (2 species)
Nectophryne afra no account photos no sound/video
Nectophryne batesii no account photos no sound/video

Genus Nectophrynoides (13 species)
Nectophrynoides asperginis account photos no sound/video
Nectophrynoides cryptus no account no photos no sound/video
Nectophrynoides frontierei no account no photos no sound/video
Nectophrynoides laevis no account no photos no sound/video
Nectophrynoides laticeps account no photos no sound/video
Nectophrynoides minutus no account no photos no sound/video
Nectophrynoides paulae no account no photos no sound/video
Nectophrynoides poyntoni account no photos no sound/video
Nectophrynoides pseudotornieri no account no photos no sound/video
Nectophrynoides tornieri account photos sound/video
Nectophrynoides vestergaardi account photos no sound/video
Nectophrynoides viviparus no account photos no sound/video
Nectophrynoides wendyae no account no photos no sound/video

Genus Nimbaphrynoides (1 species)
Nimbaphrynoides occidentalis account no photos no sound/video

Genus Oreophrynella (9 species)
Oreophrynella cryptica no account no photos no sound/video
Oreophrynella dendronastes no account no photos no sound/video
Oreophrynella huberi no account no photos no sound/video
Oreophrynella macconnelli no account no photos no sound/video
Oreophrynella nigra account photos no sound/video
Oreophrynella quelchii no account no photos no sound/video
Oreophrynella seegobini account photos no sound/video
Oreophrynella vasquezi no account no photos no sound/video
Oreophrynella weiassipuensis no account no photos no sound/video

Genus Osornophryne (11 species)
Osornophryne angel no account no photos no sound/video
Osornophryne antisana no account no photos no sound/video
Osornophryne bufoniformis no account no photos no sound/video
Osornophryne cofanorum no account no photos no sound/video
Osornophryne guacamayo no account photos no sound/video
Osornophryne occidentalis no account no photos no sound/video
Osornophryne percrassa no account no photos no sound/video
Osornophryne puruanta no account no photos no sound/video
Osornophryne simpsoni no account no photos no sound/video
Osornophryne sumacoensis no account no photos no sound/video
Osornophryne talipes no account no photos no sound/video

Genus Parapelophryne (1 species)
Parapelophryne scalpta no account photos sound/video

Genus Pedostibes (1 species)
Pedostibes tuberculosus account photos no sound/video

Genus Pelophryne (14 species)
Pelophryne albotaeniata no account no photos no sound/video
Pelophryne api no account photos no sound/video
Pelophryne brevipes no account no photos no sound/video
Pelophryne guentheri no account photos no sound/video
Pelophryne ingeri no account no photos no sound/video
Pelophryne lighti no account no photos no sound/video
Pelophryne linanitensis no account no photos no sound/video
Pelophryne macrotis no account no photos no sound/video
Pelophryne misera no account photos no sound/video
Pelophryne murudensis no account no photos no sound/video
Pelophryne penrissenensis no account no photos no sound/video
Pelophryne rhopophilia no account no photos no sound/video
Pelophryne saravacensis no account no photos no sound/video
Pelophryne signata no account photos no sound/video

Genus Peltophryne (14 species)
Peltophryne armata no account no photos no sound/video
Peltophryne cataulaciceps no account photos no sound/video
Peltophryne dunni no account no photos no sound/video
Peltophryne empusa no account photos no sound/video
Peltophryne florentinoi no account no photos no sound/video
Peltophryne fluviatica account no photos no sound/video
Peltophryne fustiger account photos no sound/video
Peltophryne guentheri account no photos no sound/video
Peltophryne gundlachi no account photos no sound/video
Peltophryne lemur account photos no sound/video
Peltophryne longinasus account photos no sound/video
Peltophryne peltocephala account photos no sound/video
Peltophryne ramsdeni no account no photos no sound/video
Peltophryne taladai account photos no sound/video

Genus Phrynoidis (2 species)
Phrynoidis aspera account photos sound/video
Phrynoidis juxtasper no account photos no sound/video

Genus Poyntonophrynus (11 species)
Poyntonophrynus beiranus no account no photos no sound/video
Poyntonophrynus damaranus no account no photos no sound/video
Poyntonophrynus dombensis no account photos no sound/video
Poyntonophrynus fenoulheti no account no photos no sound/video
Poyntonophrynus grandisonae no account no photos no sound/video
Poyntonophrynus hoeschi no account no photos no sound/video
Poyntonophrynus kavangensis no account no photos no sound/video
Poyntonophrynus lughensis no account photos no sound/video
Poyntonophrynus pachnodes no account no photos no sound/video
Poyntonophrynus parkeri no account no photos no sound/video
Poyntonophrynus vertebralis no account no photos no sound/video

Genus Pseudobufo (1 species)
Pseudobufo subasper no account photos no sound/video

Genus Rentapia (3 species)
Rentapia everetti account photos no sound/video
Rentapia flavomaculata no account photos no sound/video
Rentapia hosii no account photos sound/video

Genus Rhaebo (14 species)
Rhaebo andinophrynoides no account no photos no sound/video
Rhaebo atelopoides no account no photos no sound/video
Rhaebo blombergi no account photos no sound/video
Rhaebo caeruleostictus no account no photos no sound/video
Rhaebo ceratophrys no account photos no sound/video
Rhaebo colomai no account no photos no sound/video
Rhaebo ecuadorensis account no photos no sound/video
Rhaebo glaberrimus no account photos no sound/video
Rhaebo guttatus no account photos no sound/video
Rhaebo haematiticus account photos no sound/video
Rhaebo hypomelas no account no photos no sound/video
Rhaebo lynchi no account no photos no sound/video
Rhaebo nasicus no account no photos no sound/video
Rhaebo olallai no account photos no sound/video

Genus Rhinella (87 species)
Rhinella achalensis no account photos no sound/video
Rhinella achavali no account photos no sound/video
Rhinella acrolopha no account no photos no sound/video
Rhinella amabilis account no photos no sound/video
Rhinella arborescandens no account no photos no sound/video
Rhinella arenarum no account photos no sound/video
Rhinella arunco no account photos no sound/video
Rhinella atacamensis no account photos no sound/video
Rhinella azarai no account no photos no sound/video
Rhinella beebei no account photos no sound/video
Rhinella bergi account no photos no sound/video
Rhinella bernardoi no account no photos no sound/video
Rhinella casconi account no photos no sound/video
Rhinella centralis no account photos no sound/video
Rhinella cerradensis no account photos no sound/video
Rhinella chavin account no photos no sound/video
Rhinella chrysophora no account no photos no sound/video
Rhinella chullachaki no account photos no sound/video
Rhinella cristinae no account no photos no sound/video
Rhinella crucifer no account photos no sound/video
Rhinella diptycha account photos no sound/video
Rhinella dorbignyi no account photos no sound/video
Rhinella exostosica no account no photos no sound/video
Rhinella festae no account photos no sound/video
Rhinella fissipes no account no photos no sound/video
Rhinella gallardoi no account no photos no sound/video
Rhinella gnustae no account no photos no sound/video
Rhinella granulosa account photos sound/video
Rhinella henseli no account no photos no sound/video
Rhinella horribilis no account photos no sound/video
Rhinella humboldti no account photos no sound/video
Rhinella icterica account photos sound/video
Rhinella inca no account photos no sound/video
Rhinella inopina no account photos no sound/video
Rhinella iserni no account no photos no sound/video
Rhinella justinianoi no account photos no sound/video
Rhinella leptoscelis no account photos no sound/video
Rhinella lilyrodriguezae no account photos no sound/video
Rhinella limensis no account photos no sound/video
Rhinella lindae no account no photos no sound/video
Rhinella macrorhina no account photos no sound/video
Rhinella major no account photos no sound/video
Rhinella manu no account photos no sound/video
Rhinella marina account photos sound/video
Rhinella merianae no account photos no sound/video
Rhinella mirandaribeiroi no account photos no sound/video
Rhinella multiverrucosa no account no photos no sound/video
Rhinella nattereri no account no photos no sound/video
Rhinella nesiotes no account no photos no sound/video
Rhinella nicefori no account no photos no sound/video
Rhinella ornata no account photos sound/video
Rhinella paraguas no account no photos no sound/video
Rhinella parecis no account no photos no sound/video
Rhinella poeppigii no account photos no sound/video
Rhinella pombali account photos no sound/video
Rhinella pygmaea no account photos sound/video
Rhinella quechua no account photos no sound/video
Rhinella rostrata account no photos no sound/video
Rhinella rubescens no account photos no sound/video
Rhinella rubropunctata no account no photos no sound/video
Rhinella ruizi no account no photos no sound/video
Rhinella rumbolli no account no photos no sound/video
Rhinella schneideri account photos sound/video
Rhinella spinulosa no account photos no sound/video
Rhinella sternosignata no account photos no sound/video
Rhinella tacana no account photos no sound/video
Rhinella tenrec account no photos no sound/video
Rhinella truebae account no photos no sound/video
Rhinella vellardi no account photos no sound/video
Rhinella veraguensis no account photos no sound/video
Rhinella veredas account photos no sound/video
Rhinella yanachaga account no photos no sound/video
Rhinella (margaritifera) acutirostris no account no photos no sound/video
Rhinella (margaritifera) alata no account photos no sound/video
Rhinella (margaritifera) castaneotica no account photos no sound/video
Rhinella (margaritifera) dapsilis no account photos no sound/video
Rhinella (margaritifera) hoogmoedi no account photos no sound/video
Rhinella (margaritifera) lescurei account photos no sound/video
Rhinella (margaritifera) magnussoni account no photos sound/video
Rhinella (margaritifera) margaritifera account photos no sound/video
Rhinella (margaritifera) ocellata no account photos no sound/video
Rhinella (margaritifera) proboscidea account photos sound/video
Rhinella (margaritifera) roqueana no account no photos no sound/video
Rhinella (margaritifera) scitula no account photos no sound/video
Rhinella (margaritifera) sclerocephala no account no photos no sound/video
Rhinella (margaritifera) sebbeni no account no photos no sound/video
Rhinella (margaritifera) stanlaii no account photos no sound/video

Genus Sabahphrynus (1 species)
Sabahphrynus maculatus account no photos no sound/video

Genus Schismaderma (1 species)
Schismaderma carens account photos no sound/video

Genus Sclerophrys (45 species)
Sclerophrys arabica no account photos no sound/video
Sclerophrys asmarae no account no photos no sound/video
Sclerophrys blanfordii no account photos no sound/video
Sclerophrys brauni no account photos no sound/video
Sclerophrys buchneri no account no photos no sound/video
Sclerophrys camerunensis no account photos no sound/video
Sclerophrys capensis no account photos no sound/video
Sclerophrys channingi account no photos no sound/video
Sclerophrys chudeaui no account no photos no sound/video
Sclerophrys cristiglans no account no photos no sound/video
Sclerophrys danielae no account no photos no sound/video
Sclerophrys djohongensis no account no photos no sound/video
Sclerophrys dodsoni account photos no sound/video
Sclerophrys fuliginata no account no photos no sound/video
Sclerophrys funerea no account no photos no sound/video
Sclerophrys garmani no account photos no sound/video
Sclerophrys gracilipes no account photos no sound/video
Sclerophrys gutturalis no account photos no sound/video
Sclerophrys kassasii account no photos no sound/video
Sclerophrys kerinyagae no account photos no sound/video
Sclerophrys kisoloensis no account photos no sound/video
Sclerophrys langanoensis no account no photos no sound/video
Sclerophrys latifrons no account photos no sound/video
Sclerophrys lemairii no account no photos no sound/video
Sclerophrys maculata account photos sound/video
Sclerophrys mauritanica no account photos no sound/video
Sclerophrys pantherina account photos no sound/video
Sclerophrys pardalis no account no photos no sound/video
Sclerophrys pentoni account photos no sound/video
Sclerophrys perreti no account photos no sound/video
Sclerophrys poweri no account photos no sound/video
Sclerophrys pusilla no account photos no sound/video
Sclerophrys reesi no account no photos no sound/video
Sclerophrys regularis account photos sound/video
Sclerophrys steindachneri no account photos no sound/video
Sclerophrys superciliaris no account photos no sound/video
Sclerophrys taiensis account photos no sound/video
Sclerophrys tihamica no account photos no sound/video
Sclerophrys togoensis no account photos no sound/video
Sclerophrys tuberosa no account photos no sound/video
Sclerophrys turkanae no account no photos no sound/video
Sclerophrys urunguensis no account no photos no sound/video
Sclerophrys villiersi no account photos no sound/video
Sclerophrys vittata no account no photos no sound/video
Sclerophrys xeros account photos no sound/video

Genus Sigalegalephrynus (5 species)
Sigalegalephrynus burnitelongensis no account no photos no sound/video
Sigalegalephrynus gayoluesensis no account no photos no sound/video
Sigalegalephrynus harveyi no account no photos no sound/video
Sigalegalephrynus mandailinguensis account no photos no sound/video
Sigalegalephrynus minangkabauensis no account no photos no sound/video

Genus Strauchbufo (1 species)
Strauchbufo raddei account photos no sound/video

Genus Truebella (2 species)
Truebella skoptes account no photos no sound/video
Truebella tothastes account no photos no sound/video

Genus Vandijkophrynus (5 species)
Vandijkophrynus amatolicus no account photos no sound/video
Vandijkophrynus angusticeps no account photos no sound/video
Vandijkophrynus gariepensis no account photos no sound/video
Vandijkophrynus inyangae no account no photos no sound/video
Vandijkophrynus robinsoni no account photos no sound/video

Genus Werneria (6 species)
Werneria bambutensis account photos no sound/video
Werneria iboundji no account no photos no sound/video
Werneria mertensiana no account no photos no sound/video
Werneria preussi account no photos no sound/video
Werneria submontana no account no photos no sound/video
Werneria tandyi no account photos no sound/video

Genus Wolterstorffina (3 species)
Wolterstorffina chirioi no account photos no sound/video
Wolterstorffina mirei no account photos no sound/video
Wolterstorffina parvipalmata no account photos no sound/video


Citation: AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: AmphibiaWeb. Available: https://amphibiaweb.org/. (Accessed:

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