AmphibiaWeb - Truebella skoptes


(Translations may not be accurate.)

Truebella skoptes Graybeal & Cannatella, 1995
family: Bufonidae
genus: Truebella
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN Red List Status Account Data Deficient (DD)
National Status None
Regional Status None


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Members of this genus are small toads which have the following synapomorphies: presence of medial projection of nasal cartilage at tip of snout, angle between body of clavicle and clavicular acromion process 90 degrees or less (acute), absence of webbing between the toes, and presence of only one prepollical element, which is spherican in shape, along with other bufonid characteristics.

The color description is that of the preserved specimens, as follows: the dorsal ground color is a dark chocolate brown with tubercles and mid-dorsal stripe dull orange-brown. Flanks dark chocolate brown with a belly nearly uniform pale brown; chin and chest tan. Snout is very pointed in dorsal view (see figures in Graybeal and Cannatella 1995) and acutely rounded and greatly protruding beyond the lower jaw. Canthus rostralis is sharp, with a glandular ridge extending onto upper eyelid; the loreal region is flat and almost vertical, lying above a swollen looking lip. Nostrils are slightly posterior to anterior edge of lower jaw. Head lacks cranial crests, a tympanum, ostia pharyngea, and vocal slits. Relative finger lengths are 2<1<4<3; relative toe lengths are 1<2<3<5<4. Tips of fingers and toes are slightly rounded and do not terminate into discs. Webbing absent on fingers and between toes 1-2, 2-3, but thick, fleshy, and basal between toes 3-4 and 4-5. Skin is not warty but possesses patches of gland cells which form low circular tubercles. Glandular tubercles are arranged in two vertebral rows one tubercle wide; a higher concentration of glandular tubercles occur behind the eye and at the angle of the jaw, but do not form parotoid glands. Cloacal opening is directed posteriorly at mid-level of thighs, cloacal sheath absent. Sacrococcygeal articulation fused and quadratojugal absent.

Distribution and Habitat

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Peru

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This species is only known from the type locality at 5 km SW of Comas, Departamento de Junin, Peru (2742 m).

Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
The largest male is almost of equal SVL as the two large gravid females found (25.5 mm for male, 21.3-29.4 for the two females). One of the females was found to have a clutch size of 62 eggs, with a max diameter of 1.9 mm. Eggs were uniformly tan and the animal poles were dark brown.

Truebella skoptes belongs to a genus described by Graybeal and Cannatella (1995), and currently has only two species known (including T. tothastes).


Graybeal, A., Cannatella, D.C. (1995). ''A new taxon of Bufonidae from Peru, with descriptions of two new species and a review of the phylogenetic status of supraspecific bufonid taxa.'' Herpetologica, 51(2), 105-131.

Originally submitted by: Raul E. Diaz (first posted 2004-06-04)
Edited by: Tate Tunstall, Michelle Koo (2020-11-28)

Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2020 Truebella skoptes <> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Jun 14, 2024.

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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2024. <> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 14 Jun 2024.

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