This species occurs in the Sierra de Los Tuxtlas in southern Veracruz, Mexico. It is known from 200-1,600 m asl (Rodríguez-Mendoza and Pineda 2010; Cabrera-Guzmán and Reynoso 2012). Its extent of occurrence (EOO) is 4,553 km2.
Habitat and Ecology
It inhabits tropical wet forests and montane forests. It is a stream-breeding amphibian.
This is a naturally uncommon species. Its numbers have decreased in the lower parts of Los Tuxtlas, but it has been observed more in the montane forests of the region.
The major threat to this species is loss and degradation of the habitat due to agricultural activities (crops and livestock), wood extraction, and infrastructure development.
The species can be found in Los Tuxtlas Biosphere Reserve. It is protected by Mexican law under the "Special Protection" category (Pr).
The protection of the reserve is not always guaranteed and some sites inside the reserve are subject to human disturbance, therefore improved management is urgently needed.
Red List Status
Listed as Endangered, because its extent of occurrence (EOO) is 4,553 km2, it is known from one threat-defined location and there is a continuing decline in the extent and quality of its forest habitat.
IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2016. Incilius cavifrons. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T54605A53949004. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T54605A53949004.en .Downloaded on 19 February 2019