Incilius cavifrons
family: Bufonidae

© 2017 Adriana Sandoval-Comte (1 of 5)
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Endangered (EN)
Other International Status None
National Status None
Regional Status None

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Mexico


View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.


From the IUCN Red List Species Account:


Range Description

This species occurs only in the Sierra de Los Tuxtlas and a few other localities near the Santa Marta volcano, in southern Veracruz, Mexico. It is known from 200-1,600m asl.

Habitat and Ecology

It inhabits tropical pine-oak forests with abundant leaf-litter. It is a stream-breeding amphibian.


This is a naturally rare species.

Population Trend


Major Threats

The major threat to this species is loss and degradation of its pine-oak forest habitat due to agricultural activities (crops and livestock), wood extraction, and infrastructure development.

Conservation Actions

Although this species can be found in protected areas, the protection of these areas is not always guaranteed, and some are subject to human disturbance; improved management of these is urgently needed. This species is protected by Mexican law under the "Special Protection" category (Pr).

Red List Status

Endangered (EN)


Georgina Santos-Barrera, Oscar Flores-Villela 2004. Incilius cavifrons. In: IUCN 2014


IUCN Terms of Use