Rhinella crucifer
family: Bufonidae

© 2018 Mauro Teixeira Jr (1 of 6)
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Least Concern (LC)
Other International Status None
National Status None
Regional Status None

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay



View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.

From the IUCN Red List Species Account:


Range Description

This species occurs in the Atlantic Forest of northeastern Brazil, at 0-900m asl. This species does not occur in Uruguay. Records from Misiones and northwestern Corrientes, Argentina, probably refer to B. ornatus. Records from eastern Paraguay remain unresolved, but are unlikely to refer to B. crucifer.

Habitat and Ecology

It occurs in leaf-litter of the rainforest and also disturbed habitats. It reproduces in backwaters of rapidly flowing streams and temporary pools.


It is abundant in some areas and uncommon in others.

Population Trend


Major Threats

Deforestation for agricultural crops and timber extraction are threats facing this species.

Conservation Actions

It occurs in many protected areas.

Red List Status

Least Concern (LC)


Listed as Least Concern in view of its relatively wide distribution, tolerance of a degree of habitat modification, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.

Taxonomic Notes

Records of this species from Uruguay are in error. It has recently been shown to be a complex of more than one species, and R. abei, R. henseli, R. ornata, and R. pombali recognized (Baldissera et al., 2004).


Lucy Aquino, Axel Kwet, Magno Vicente Segalla, Diego Baldo 2004. Rhinella crucifer. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T54621A11176078. .Downloaded on 16 February 2019


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