Duttaphrynus cyphosus
Projective-Occiputed Toad
family: Bufonidae

© 2013 Kai Wang (1 of 3)

AmphibiaChina 中国两栖类.

Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Least Concern (LC)
Other International Status None
National Status None
Regional Status None

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: China


View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.


From the IUCN Red List Species Account:


Range Description

This species is widely distributed throughout the Himalayan mountains. It is found from the Hazara Division of Azad Kashmir, Pakistan, through northern India and Nepal, and is presumed to be present in Bhutan although this is not yet confirmed. It is also known from the southern slopes of the Himalayas in Xizang (himalayanus) and northwestern Yunnan (cyphosus), China. It has an altitudinal range of 1,000-3,500m asl.

Habitat and Ecology

It is generally a high-altitude species, although it may also be found in the evergreen forests of the foothills. It inhabits mountain forests and shrubland near streams and is also found in the vicinity of seepages and cultivated fields. It is largely terrestrial in nature and breeding takes place in hill streams, small pools and puddles where the larvae also develop. It is quite adaptable to anthropogenically modified habitats.


It is generally a common species of montane areas, although it is considered to be rare in Pakistan.

Population Trend


Major Threats

The main threats are agrochemical pollution of land and breeding habitats, development of areas for tourism, clear-cutting of montane forests and over collection for food.

Conservation Actions

This species has been recorded from the protected areas of Tarai and Chitwan National Parks in Nepal, Namdhapa and Mouling National Parks and Dihang-Dibang Biosphere Reserve (in Arunachal Pradesh State) in India, and the Khungerab and Central Karakorum protected areas in Pakistan.

Red List Status

Least Concern (LC)


Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.

Taxonomic Notes

The population in northwestern Yunnan is sometimes assigned to the species Duttaphrynus cyphosus Ye, 1977. It is considered here to be a synonym of Duttaphrynus himalayanus following Yang (1991) and Zhao and Adler (1993).


Muhammad Sharif Khan, Sushil Dutta, Sabitry Bordoloi, Sohrab Uddin Sarker, Fei Liang, Annemarie Ohler 2004. Duttaphrynus himalayanus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T54662A11170049.


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