AmphibiaWeb - Bufotes pseudoraddei
Bufotes pseudoraddei
Swat Green Toad, Swati gauk
family: Bufonidae
Taxonomic Notes: Bufotes zamdaensis synonomized with B. pseudoraddei after Dufresnes C et al. 2019. Fifteen shades of green: the evolution of Bufotes toads revisited. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 141: 106615. This is a triploid species of complex orgin, but likely involving hybridization of two related diploid species (see several publications by Stoeck and coauthors: Evolution 2006 Mol Phyl Evo, 2010 Evol, 2012 PRSB, 2015 Heredity, 2015 J Biog.).

© 2011 Mikhail F. Bagaturov (1 of 4)
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Least Concern (LC)
National Status Northern Pakistan toad
Regional Status Restricted



View distribution map in BerkeleyMapper.

This toad has wide range in north and northwestern pakistan. it has been recornized in several subspecies which are said to be having triploid chromosomes. Bufo pseudoraddei pseudoraddei is recognized from Bufo viridis by its dorsal body color and pattern. Color: The dorsum is dark green with a light vertebral stripe and lighter spots on flanks. Limbs are with large dark blotches. Dorsal tubercles are not so prominent, rather they are flat.

Recently Stock et al. (1999) gave independent specific rank Bufo pseudoraddei to this toad, since it differs from Bufo viridis and Bufo latastii in its shorter parotids, color pattern, and open habiat ecology within the zone of Himalayan coniferous forests and moist temperate forests. A new taxon Bufo pseudoraddei baturae has recently been described from northeastern Pakistan. It inhabits marginal vegetation along torrents in the glacier-ridden part of Pakistan. In this subspecies parotid glands are inconspicuous; interorbital space is smaller or nearly equal the internarial space; subarticular tubercles single under toes; often double on first, second and in some third finger.

Color: Dorsum grayishgreen or grayishbrown, with irregular dark green spottings, mostly smaller or about the size of the eye. Spots partially connected to form a marbled pattern with indentated margins. In male brownish or grayish irregular spots at extremities.

Distribution and Habitat

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Afghanistan, China, Pakistan


View distribution map in BerkeleyMapper.
DISTRIBUTION: Distribution: So far, Bufo pseudoraddei pseudoraddei has been collected from Mingora, and Swat in Pakistan. Eiselt and Schmidtler (1973) include the high mountains of eastern Afghanistan and the northwestern mountains of Pakistan in its range.

While Bufo pseudoraddei baturae is distributed: Passu, Swat, Karakoram Range, Gilgit Agency, Baltistan, Pakistan.

Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
LIFE_HISTORY: Dark brown tadpoles swarm the water-land interface in side pools along streams and torrents. They feed on pond vegetation and other detritus deposited on the submerged objects. The tadpole has a typical bufonid globular body, a short tail with low fins, with same morphology of oral disc and tooth row formula. Total length of tadpole 23 mm, tail 16 mm.

Trends and Threats
In the areas where agricultural activity takes place, the use of fertilizers and pesticides do affact the eggs and tadpoles of these toads. The these bufonids are confined and restricted to narrow valleys, where inbreeding occurs.

Relation to Humans
Agriculture activity in the valleys has helped in habitat creation for these toads and their wider distribution.

Possible reasons for amphibian decline

Local pesticides, fertilizers, and pollutants
Loss of genetic diversity from small population phenomena
Loss of distinctiveness through hybridization


For references in the text, see here

Khan recognizes two subspecies for Bufo pseudoraddei, they are: Bufo pseudoraddei pseudoraddei and Bufo pseudoraddei baturae . In this species account, the descriptions are shown seperately (added by V. Vredenburg).


Eiselt, V.J. and Schmidtler, J.F. (1973). ''Froschlurche aus dem Iran unter Berucksichtigung ausseriranischer Populations-gruppen.'' Annals Naturhistorische Museum Wien, 77, 181-243.

Stöck, M., Schmid, M., Steinlein, C., and Grosse, W-R. (1999). ''Mosaicism in somatic triploid specimens of the Bufo viridis complex in the Karakoram with examination of calls, morphology and taxonomic conclusions.'' Italian Journal of Zoology, 66, 215-232.

Originally submitted by: M. S. Khan (first posted 2002-04-07)

Edited by: V. Vredenburg (2021-03-17)

Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2021 Bufotes pseudoraddei: Swat Green Toad <> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Jun 14, 2021.

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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2021. <> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 14 Jun 2021.

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