This species is known from only from two localities at around 800m asl in the state of Espírito Santo, southern Brazil: the type locality, Santa Tereza; and from nearby at Fundão. It almost certainly occurs a little more widely.
Habitat and Ecology
It lives in the leaf-litter of primary and secondary forests, but not in more degraded habitats, and is dependent upon bromeliads in which it lays its eggs and in which the the larvae develop.
It appears to be a rare species.
The major threats are habitat loss due to agricultural expansion, livestock grazing, clear-cutting, the collection of bromeliads, and human settlement. The population at Fundão is threatened by coffee cultivation.
It might occur in the Estacion Biólogica Santa Lucia, and Reserva Biólogica Augusto Ruschi, but this is not confirmed. It has been found in forest on private land, and bromeliads from this area have been introduced into nearby protected areas. Since it is quite possible that these bromeliads contained larvae of the species, it may have become inadvertently established in these protected areas.
Red List Status
Listed as Endangered because its Extent of Occurrence is less than 5,000 km2, all individuals are in fewer than five locations, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat in Espirito Santo, Brazil.
Débora Silvano, Oswaldo Luiz Peixoto 2004. Dendrophryniscus carvalhoi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T54807A11204563. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2004.RLTS.T54807A11204563.en