AmphibiaWeb - Amazophrynella amazonicola
AMPHIBIAWEB

 

(Translations may not be accurate.)

Amazophrynella amazonicola Rojas, Carvalho, Ávila, Farias, Gordo & Hrbek, 2015
family: Bufonidae
genus: Amazophrynella
Species Description: Rojas RR, De Carvalho VT, Avila RW, Farias IP, Gordo M, Hrbek T. 2015 Two new species of Amazophrynella (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae) from Loreto, Peru. Zootaxa 3946: 79-103.
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN Red List Status Account
CITES No CITES Listing
National Status None
Regional Status None

   

 
Berkeley mapper logo

View distribution map in BerkeleyMapper.

Description
Amazophrynella amazonicola is a slender toad with a snout-vent length range of 13.3 - 15.4 mm. It is characterized by the presence of a pointed outgrowth of tissue on the end of the muzzle, a finely granular texture to the skin, and webbing present only at the bases of fingers I and II (Rojas et al. 2015).

It can be distinguished from other members of the genus Amazophrynella by its larger body size, finger I being greater in length than finger II, and the absence of cranial crests, external tympanum, and externally identifiable vocal sacs (Rojas et al. 2015).

Adults have tan skin with greenish-white speckles on their dorsal surface, and yellow to bright reddish orange skin with brown markings on their ventral surface. Both males and females develop a red color to their neck and sternum during the breeding season from December through March (Rojas et al. 2015).

There is a great deal of variation found when examining the ventral coloration of this species, colors can range from pale yellow to bright reddish-orange and the size and abundance of brown blotching is highly variable. Males display an additional point of variation in the coloration of the raised granules of the inner thigh, which can span from translucent yellow to gray or red (Rojas et al. 2015).

Distribution and Habitat

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Peru

 
Berkeley mapper logo

View distribution map in BerkeleyMapper.
Amazophrynella amazonicola is mostly found in the northwest of Iquitos and occurs in a few locations throughout Loreto, Peru, including Fundo Zmora, Fundo UNAP, Allpahuayo Mishana National Reserve, Nauta, and Puerto Almendra (Rojas et al. 2015).

Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Other members of its genus Amazophrynella reproduce in ephemeral puddles and small ponds (Rojas et al. 2016), and live, camouflaged, in leaf litter (Magnusson and Hero 1991).

Both males and females develop a red color to their neck and sternum during the breeding season from December through March (Rojas et al. 2015).

Amazophrynella amazonicola produces vocal calls at a pulse rate of 26 to 48 pulses per note (Rojas et al. 2018), and calls are made during the daytime (Rojas et al. 2014).

Trends and Threats
Many frogs of the Amazon Basin are declining in numbers due to a combination of climate change, habitat loss, and chytrid fungus (Collins 2010). However, specific threats to A. amazonicola were not defined as of 2022.

Possible reasons for amphibian decline

General habitat alteration and loss
Disease
Climate change, increased UVB or increased sensitivity to it, etc.

Comments

A 2015 Maximum Likelihood analysis of 16S rDNA found that A. amazonicola is a member of the A. minuta species complex and is sister to A. minuta. Together they are sister to a clade composed of A. javierbustamantei and A. matses. Lastly, the clade composed of A. bokermanni, A. manaos, and A. vote is sister to the A. minuta complex (Rojas et al. 2016). However, a 2019 Bayesian analysis of the same gene with more members of the genus indicate that A. amazonicola is basal to the clade composed of all other Amazophrynella except for A. minuta and A. siona (Kaefer et al. 2019).

The species epithet “amazonicola” is a reference to where the species is found, along the Brazilian banks of the Amazon River (Rojas et al. 2015).

References

Collins, J. P. (2010). “Amphibian decline and extinction: what we know and what we need to learn.” Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 92:93–99. [link]

Kaefer, I.L., Rojas, R.R., Ferrão, M., Farias, I.P., Lima, A.P. (2019). “A new species of Amazophrynella (Anura: Bufonidae) with two distinct advertisement calls.” Zootaxa 4577(2), 316-334. [link]

Magnusson, W. E., Hero, J.M. (1991). “Predation and the evolution of complex oviposition behavior in Amazon rainforest frogs.” Oecologia 86, 310–318. [link]

Rojas, R. R., Carvalho, V.T.D., Gordo, M., Avila, R.W., Farias, I.P., and Hrbek, T. (2014). “A new species of Amazophrynella (Anura: Bufonidae) from the southwestern part of the Brazilian Guiana Shield.” Zootaxa 3753, 79–95. [link]

Rojas, R. R., Carvalho, V.T.D., Ávila, R.W., Farias, I.P., Gordo, M., Hrbek, T. (2015). “Two new species of Amazophrynella (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae) from Loreto, Peru.” Zootaxa 394, 79–103. [link]

Rojas, R. R., Carvalho, V.T.D., Ávila, R.W., Kawashita-Ribeiro, R.A., Hrbek, T., and Gordo, M. (2018). “Description of the advertisement calls of four species of Amazophrynella (Anura:Bufonidae).” Zootaxa 4459, 193–196. [link]

Rojas, R. R., Chaparro, J.C., Carvalho, V.T.D., Ávila, R.W., Farias, I.P., Hrbek, T., Gordo, M. (2016). “Uncovering the diversity in the Amazophrynella minuta complex: integrative taxonomy reveals a new species of Amazophrynella (Anura, Bufonidae) from southern Peru.” Zookeys 563, 43–71. [link]



Originally submitted by: Ashton Tolman, Jina Kim, Paige Knowles (2022-03-10)
Description by: Ashton Tolman, Jina Kim, Paige Knowles (updated 2022-03-10)
Distribution by: Ashton Tolman, Jina Kim, Paige Knowles (updated 2022-03-10)
Life history by: Ashton Tolman, Jina Kim, Paige Knowles (updated 2022-03-10)
Trends and threats by: Ashton Tolman, Jina Kim, Paige Knowles (updated 2022-03-10)
Comments by: Ashton Tolman, Jina Kim, Paige Knowles (updated 2022-03-10)

Edited by: Ann T. Chang (2022-03-10)

Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2022 Amazophrynella amazonicola <https://amphibiaweb.org/species/8331> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Jul 21, 2024.



Feedback or comments about this page.

 

Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2024. <https://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 21 Jul 2024.

AmphibiaWeb's policy on data use.