AmphibiaWeb - Melanophryniscus sanmartini


(Translations may not be accurate.)

Melanophryniscus sanmartini Klappenbach, 1968
family: Bufonidae
genus: Melanophryniscus
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN Red List Status Account Near Threatened (NT)
National Status Uruguay: Endangered (Atención Especial)
Regional Status None


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Female: 23-26 mm, Male: 19-22 mm. Dorsum dark brown (generally with light brown blotches). Belly and chest black with ocher blotches and a conspicuous reddish orange band under the thighs. Throat and gular region uniformly black, with a light spot on the chin.

Distribution and Habitat

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Brazil, Uruguay

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View distribution map in BerkeleyMapper.
amphibiandisease logo View Bd and Bsal data (1 records).
The habitat for this species is the Uruguayan hills (North and Southeast).

Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
These toads are explosive breeders (after heavy rains), and reproductive activity takes place between April to November.

Trends and Threats
The major threat to the populations of M. sanmartini is the habitat fragmentation and loss.

Possible reasons for amphibian decline

General habitat alteration and loss
Habitat modification from deforestation, or logging related activities
Intensified agriculture or grazing
Habitat fragmentation


Achaval, F., and Olmos, A. (2003). Anfibios y reptiles del Uruguay Ed. Graphis. Serie Fauna N°, Montevideo, Uruguay.

Klappenbach, M. A. (1968). ''Notas Herpetológicas IV. El género Melanophrynius (Amphibia, Salientia) en el Uruguay, con descripción de dos nuevas especies.'' Comunicaciones Zoológicas del Museo de Historia Natural de Montevideo, 118, 1-12.

Klappenbach, M. A., and Langone, J. A. (1992). ''Lista sistemática y sinonímica de los anfibios del Uruguay con comentarios y notas sobre su distribución.'' Anales del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Montevideo (2a Serie), 8, 163-222.

Kolenc, F. (1987). ''Anuros del género Melanophryniscus en la República Oriental del Uruguay.'' Aquarama, 5(30), 16-21.

Langone, J. A. (1994). Ranas y sapos del Uruguay (reconocimientos y aspectos biológicos). Museo Damaso Antonio Larrañaga 5, Serie de Divulgación

Maneyro, R., and Langone, J. A. (2001). ''Categorización de los anfibios del Uruguay.'' Cuadernos de Herpetología, 15(2), 107-118.

Prigioni, C., and Arrieta, D. (1992). ''Descripción de la larva de Melanophryniscus sanmartini Klappenbach, 1968 (Amphibia, Anura, Bufonidae).'' Boletín de la Sociedad Zoológica del Uruguay, 7, 57-58.

Originally submitted by: Raúl Maneyro (first posted 2006-08-04)
Edited by: David Wake (2006-08-04)

Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2006 Melanophryniscus sanmartini <> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Jul 16, 2024.

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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2024. <> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 16 Jul 2024.

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