This species is known only from the type locality, Antisana, Napo Province, Ecuador, and from the volcano of Quilindana. In total, it is known from only four localities. It has been recorded between 3,400 and 4,000m asl.
Habitat and Ecology
It is terrestrial, and both diurnal and nocturnal, inhabiting wet sub-páramo habitats. The holotype was collected in an area of meadows with isolated patches of forest. Creeks and swamps are the typical landscape on the upper limit of the wet altitudinal forest (Hoogmoed 1987). It breeds by direct development, and lays its eggs on soil under vegetation.
It appears to be a rare, and locally uncommon species; however, this may be an artefact of inappropriate survey techniques. For example, when digging into the soil under the páramo plants, dozens of specimens have been found (M. Yanez and D.F. Cisneros-Heredia pers. comm.). The population of this species is thought to be declining.
The major threat to this species is habitat loss due to agricultural activities, both crops and livestock; climate change may also be impacting the species.
This species occurs in the Reserva Ecológica Antisana, the Reserva Ecológica Cayambe-Coca, and Parque Nacional Llanganates.
Red List Status
Listed as Endangered because its Extent of Occurrence is less than 5,000 km2, all individuals are in fewer than five locations, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat, and in the number of mature individuals, in the Ecuadorian Andes.
The identity of the specimens from the northern part of Parque Nacional Llanganates requires confirmation.
Luis A. Coloma, Santiago Ron, Diego Cisneros-Heredia, Mario Yánez-Muñoz 2004. Osornophryne antisana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T54855A11216403. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2004.RLTS.T54855A11216403.en