AmphibiaWeb - Nectophrynoides vestergaardi


(Translations may not be accurate.)

Nectophrynoides vestergaardi Menegon, Salvidio & Loader, 2004
Vestergaard's Forest Toad
family: Bufonidae
genus: Nectophrynoides
Species Description: Menegon M, Salvidio S, Loader SP 2004 Five new species of Nectophrynoides Noble 1926 (Amphibia Anura Bufonidae) from the Eastern Arc Mountains, Tanzania. Trop. Zool. 17:97-121
Nectophrynoides vestergaardi
© 2005 Martin Vestergaard (1 of 1)
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN Red List Status Account Endangered (EN)
CITES Appendix I
National Status None
Regional Status None


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Diagnosis: Nectophyrnoides vestergaardi can be distinguished from N. tornieri by its rounded toes and fingers that lack truncated ends. It can be differentiated from some of the species in its genus by the presence of a distinct tympanum, narrow and elongated paratoid glands, the lack of glands on the limbs, and the shape of the body and head (Menegon et al. 2004).

Description: N. vestergaardi has short, slender limbs. The tympanum is easily seen. Raised parotid glands are present that are equally as long as wide and also have dark edges. Toes and fingertips can be rounded or pointed. The fingers are only slightly webbed and toes are partially webbed (Menegon, et al. 2004).

Coloration: The dorsal side is light with the lateral sides being darker. Many individuals have a dark stripe running down the dorsum (Menegon et al. 2004).

Coloration in Preservative: In preservative, the dorsal ground color is light brown, and the lateral sides darker. The ventral side is pale cream, and the ventral side of the chin is cream (Menegon, et al. 2004).

Variation: There is little variation in the dorsal pattern among individuals or between sexes. The dorsal skin does show some variation between smooth and rough (Menegon et al. 2004).

Distribution and Habitat

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Tanzania, United Republic of

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View distribution map in BerkeleyMapper.
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This species is found in the West Usambara Mountains in northeastern Tanzania, at an altitude of 1230-2000 m. Its habitat is in submontane and montane forest, the ecotone between forest and ericaceous vegetation (Menegon and Loader 2004).

Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
No call has been recorded. N. vestergaardi hides in rotten logs.

It is presumed to have internal fertilization and direct development like other species in its genus (Menegon and Loader 2004; Orton 1949).

Trends and Threats
The species population is declining, but it is protected in a forest reserve by Dar es Salaam University. Deforestation and urbanization are threatening its habitat. It is listed as endangered, partly due to the decline in the quality of its habitat (Menegon and Loader 2004).

Relation to Humans
N. vestergaardi is used as a biological resource (Menegon et al. 2004).

Possible reasons for amphibian decline

General habitat alteration and loss
Habitat modification from deforestation, or logging related activities

The species authorities are M. Menegon, S. Salvidio, and S.P. Loader. N. vestergaardi was named for Martin Vestergaard, a Danish zoologist, who first discovered it.


Menegon, M., Salvidio, S., and Loader, S. P. (2004). ''Five new species of Nectophrynoides Noble 1926 (Amphibia Anura Bufonidae) from the Eastern Arc Mountains, Tanzania.'' Tropical Zoology, 17, 97-121.

Menegon, Michele and Loader S. (2004). Nectophrynoides vestergaardi. In: IUCN 2010. 2010 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 18 May 2010

Orton, G.L. (1949). "Larval development of Nectophrynoides tomieri (Raux), with comments on direct development in frogs." Annals of the Carnegie Museum, 31, 257-278.

Originally submitted by: Jacob Elstad (first posted 2011-06-23)
Life history by: Michelle S. Koo (updated 2023-02-26)

Edited by: Brent Nguyen, Michelle S. Koo (2023-02-26)

Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2023 Nectophrynoides vestergaardi: Vestergaard's Forest Toad <> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Jun 17, 2024.

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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2024. <> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 17 Jun 2024.

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