Ansonia penangensis
family: Bufonidae
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Vulnerable (VU)
Other International Status None
National Status None
Regional Status None

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Malaysia, Thailand


View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.


From the IUCN Red List Species Account:


Range Description

This species is known only from Penang Island, Malaysia. Its altitudinal range is not known.

Habitat and Ecology

This is a stream-breeding species that inhabits rocky streams in rainforests.


There is very little information. The collection of tadpoles on Penang Hill in 2004 represents the first records of the species in over 100 years; this absence of records might be a reflection of inadequate surveying effort.

Population Trend


Major Threats

The forest habitat at the type locality is well protected; other potential threats are presently unknown.

Conservation Actions

The hill forests on Penang Hill are currently protected as a catchment area for Georgetown, and the lower reaches are within the Penang Botanical Gardens. Nonetheless, the population status of this species requires careful monitoring, given that it is known only from a single location.

Red List Status

Vulnerable (VU)


Listed as Vulnerable because it is known from only a single location.

Taxonomic Notes

There is much confusion surrounding the status of this species relative to Ansonia malayana. Populations that have been assigned to this species on the Isthmus of Kra and from Fraser's Hill in Malaysia are considered here to refer to A. malayana, a position which is supported by Grismer (2006) (who treats A. penangensis as endemic to Penang island). However, it is not clear that these two species are distinct from each other, and further taxonomic work is needed. Records of A. penangensis from Sumatra, Indonesia, are now assigned to A. glandulosa.


Peter Paul van Dijk, Jeet Sukumaran, Indraneil Das, Norsham Yaakob, Leong Tzi Ming, Yodchaiy Chuaynkern 2004. Ansonia penangensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T164782A115305123.


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