AmphibiaWeb - Adenomus kandianus
Adenomus kandianus
family: Bufonidae
genus: Adenomus
Taxonomic Notes: Rediscovered by Wickramasinghe and colleagues (Zootaxa 2012 3347:63-68). Status proposed to be changed to Critically Endangered.
Species Description: Günther, ACLG. 1872. Descriptions of some Ceylonese reptiles and batrachians. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 4, 9: 85–88.

© 2009 Andreas & Christel Nöllert (1 of 5)
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Endangered (EN)
National Status Formerly Extinct
Regional Status None
Access Conservation Needs Assessment Report.



View distribution map in BerkeleyMapper.

Distribution and Habitat

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Sri Lanka


View distribution map in BerkeleyMapper.
Adenomus kandianus was endemic to Sri Lanka. The type locality is listed only as "Peradeniya" in "Ceylon" (Günther 1872), but the scientific name suggests that this species may have been found near the city of Kandy in central Sri Lanka (Stuart et al 2008).

Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Known only from the type specimen and has not been reported since the original description in 1872. It may have bred in water, with aquatic larval development, as do other members of the genus Adenomus (Stuart et al 2008).

Trends and Threats
The cause of extinction is not known, since this species was not sighted after 1872. Since then, habitat around the city of Kandy has been destroyed due to urban development (Stuart et al 2008).

Possible reasons for amphibian decline


Listed as Extinct because it had not been recorded for over 130 years despite extensive searches over a ten-year period for this species (Manamendra-Arachchi and Pethiyagoda 1998). It was rediscovered by a team in the Peak Wilderness Sanctuary, one of the few remaining continuous natural forests in Sri Lanka (Wickramasinghe et al 2012), and the authors recommended a new status of Critically Endangered.


Günther, A. (1872). ''Description of some Ceylonese reptiles and batrachians.'' Annales and Magazine of Natural History, Series 4, 9, 85-88.

Manamendra-Arachchi, K., and Pethiyagoda, R. (1998). ''A synopsis of the Sri Lankan Bufonidae (Amphibia: Anura), with description of two new species.'' Journal of South Asian Natural History, 3(2), 213-248.

Stuart, S., Hoffmann, M., Chanson, J., Cox, N., Berridge, R., Ramani, P., Young, B. (eds) (2008). Threatened Amphibians of the World. Lynx Edicions, IUCN, and Conservation International, Barcelona, Spain; Gland, Switzerland; and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Wickramasinghe, L. J. M., D. R. Vidanapathirana, and N. Wickramasinghe (2012). " Back from the dead: The world’s rarest toad Adenomus kandianus rediscovered in Sri Lanka." Zootaxa, 3347, 63–68.

Originally submitted by: Krystal Gong (first posted 2009-03-03)
Distribution by: Michelle S. Koo (updated 2021-06-13)
Comments by: Michelle S. Koo (updated 2021-06-13)

Edited by: Kellie Whittaker, updated Ann T. Chang, Michelle S. Koo (2021-06-13)

Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2021 Adenomus kandianus <> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed May 18, 2022.

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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2022. <> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 18 May 2022.

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