Truebella tothastes belongs to a genus which was recently recognized (Graybeal and Cannatella 1995). Members of this genus are small toads which have the following synapomorphies: presence of medial projection fo nasal cartilage at tip of snout, angle between body of clavicle and clavicular acromion process 90 degrees or less (acute), absence of webbing between the toes, and presence of only one prepollical element, which is spherican in shape, along with other bufonid characteristics. From preservative, coloration of the holotype is that of a dorsal chocolate brown with a narrow dark brown line from tip of snout to cloaca. A dark chocolate brown stripe extends from canthus rostralis through eye and along the flanks to the groin. The chin, chest, belly, and ventral surfacesof limbs are creamy colored with brown mottling. Variation in coloration and pattern of tuberculation (and longitudinal dorsal stripes) is quite variable among specimens. The mean SVL of adult males ranges from 26.1-29.9 mm. Dorsal tubercles brown and spinose, humeral crests hypertrophied in males, sacrococcygeal articulation bicondylar, and quadrate present. Snout pointed when viewed dorsally and protruding past lower jaw when viewed laterally. Upper lip slightly swollen. Cranial crests absent, along with tympanum, ostia pharyngea, and vocal slits. Arms robust with broken row of tubercles along ulnar margin. Relative length of fingers are 2<1<4<3, relative length of toes are 1<2<3<5<4. Patches of gland cells form scattered, spinose, irregularly-shaped warts. Presence of a dorsolateral row of warts forming a boken series from behind eye to groin, warts larger behind eye but do not form a parotoid gland. Glandular ridge on upper eyelid. Dorsal surfaces and chest covered with scattered spicules. Cloacal opening directed posteriorly at mid-level of thighs, cloacal sheath absent.
Distribution and Habitat
Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Peru
Known from three localities in Peru: Ayacucho, La Mar, Yanamonte at 2400 m; Ccarapa, below Tambo on Ayacucho-Valle del Apurimac Rd at 2438 m; and Below Tambo on Ayacucho-Valle del Apurimac Rd, at about 2742 m.
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Little is known of this species.
Graybeal, A., and Cannatella, D.C. (1995). ''A new taxon of Bufonidae from Peru, with descriptions of two new species and a review of the phylogenetic status of supraspecific bufonid taxa.'' Herpetologica, 51(2), 105-131.
Written by Raul E. Diaz (lissamphibia AT gmail.com), AWeb guy
First submitted 2004-06-04
Edited by Tate Tunstall (2004-09-01)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2004 Truebella tothastes <http://amphibiaweb.org/species/429> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Dec 11, 2019.
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2019. <http://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 11 Dec 2019.
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