AmphibiaWeb - Truebella tothastes


(Translations may not be accurate.)

Truebella tothastes Graybeal & Cannatella, 1995
family: Bufonidae
genus: Truebella
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN Red List Status Account Endangered (EN)
National Status None
Regional Status None



View distribution map in BerkeleyMapper.

Members of this genus are small toads with the following synapomorphies: presence of medial projection of the nasal cartilage at tip of snout, angle between body of clavicle and clavicular acromion process 90 degrees or less (acute), absence of webbing between the toes, and presence of only one prepollical element, which is spherical in shape, along with other characteristics of bufonids (toads).

From preservative, coloration of the holotype is that of a dorsal chocolate brown with a narrow dark brown line from tip of snout to cloaca. A dark chocolate brown stripe extends from canthus rostralis through eye and along the flanks to the groin. The chin, chest, belly, and ventral surfaces of limbs are creamy colored with brown mottling. Variation in coloration and pattern of tuberculation (and longitudinal dorsal stripes) is quite variable among specimens. The mean SVL of adult males ranges from 26.1-29.9 mm. Dorsal tubercles brown and spinose, humeral crests hypertrophied in males, sacrococcygeal articulation bicondylar, and quadrate present. Snout pointed when viewed dorsally and protruding past lower jaw when viewed laterally. Upper lip slightly swollen. Lacks cranial crests, tympanum, ostia pharyngea, and vocal slits. Arms robust with broken row of tubercles along ulnar margin. Relative length of fingers are 2<1<4<3, relative length of toes are 1<2<3<5<4. Patches of gland cells form scattered, spinose, irregularly-shaped warts. Presence of a dorsolateral row of warts forming a broken series from behind eye to groin, warts larger behind eye but do not form a parotoid gland. Glandular ridge on upper eyelid. Dorsal surfaces and chest covered with scattered spicules. Cloacal opening directed posteriorly at mid-level of thighs, cloacal sheath absent.

Distribution and Habitat

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Peru


View distribution map in BerkeleyMapper.
Known from three localities in the Ayacucho region of the Cordillera Oriental of Peru: Ayacucho, La Mar, Yanamonte at 2400 m; Ccarapa, below Tambo on Ayacucho-Valle del Apurimac Rd at 2438 m; and below Tambo on Ayacucho-Valle del Apurimac Rd, at about 2742 m.

Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Little is known of this species natural history.

Possible reasons for amphibian decline

General habitat alteration and loss
Intensified agriculture or grazing

Truebella tothastes belongs to a genus which was recognized by Graybeal and Cannatella (1995). Its specific epithet "tothastes" or "one who scorns" refers to its unusual characteristics for a toad.


Graybeal, A., Cannatella, D.C. (1995). ''A new taxon of Bufonidae from Peru, with descriptions of two new species and a review of the phylogenetic status of supraspecific bufonid taxa.'' Herpetologica, 51(2), 105-131.

Originally submitted by: Raul E. Diaz (first posted 2004-06-04)
Edited by: Tate Tunstall, Michelle Koo (2020-11-28)

Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2020 Truebella tothastes <> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Apr 14, 2024.

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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2024. <> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 14 Apr 2024.

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