Melanophryniscus setiba Peloso, Faivovich, Grant, Gasparini & Haddad, 2012
Restinga toadlet, sapinho-da-restinga
|Species Description: Peloso PLV, Faivovich J, Grant T, Gasparini JL, Haddad CFB 2012 An extraordinary new species of Melanophryniscus (Anura, Bufonidae) from southeastern Brazil. Amer Mus Novitat 3762: 1-31.|
The absence of a frontal macrogland, and almost smooth skin on the dorusm and flanks are a distinctive features of this species. Males can be distinguished from males of similar species by the nuptial pads with a few enlarged brown spines on Finger II (Peloso et al. 2012).
The dorsum is reddish brown to dark brown in life. Dorsal marks are present, forming an X anteriorly and an upside-down V posteriorly. The venter is light colored with various numbers of dark spots and markings at midbody. There is usually a dark brown mark on ventral side. The nuptial pads are brown (Peloso et al. 2012).
Distribution and Habitat
Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Brazil
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
The presence of vocal slits and sacs suggest male vocalization. However, at the time of the species description, calls were not observed (Peloso et al. 2012).
The species is likely oviparous, but eggs were not observed at time of the species description (Peloso et al. 2012).
The species seems relatively abundant in the area (Peloso et al. 2012).
Their diet consists of ants and mites (Peloso et al. 2012).
Trends and Threats
Possible reasons for amphibian decline
General habitat alteration and loss
Parsimony analysis methods on the mitochondrial genes 12S, tRNAVa l, 16S, along with the nuclear genes exon 1 rhodopsin, exon 2 of chemokine receptor 4 (Cxcr4), and recombination activating gene 1 (RAG-1) found that M. setiba is the most basal Melanophryniscus species and is sister to the clade composed of M. devincenzii, M. fulvoguttatus and M. klappenbachi. The latter two are sister to each other (Peloso et al. 2012).
The species epithet, setiba, is derived from the Tupi Guarani language and means “seashells in abundance” (Peloso et al. 2012).
Peloso P.L.V., Faivovich J., Grant T., Gasparini J.L., Haddad C.F.B. 2012. "An extraordinary new species of Melanophryniscus (Anura, Bufonidae) from southeastern Brazil." Amer Mus Novitat 3762, 1-31. [link]
Originally submitted by: Jack K. Dirck (2022-09-14)
Description by: Jack K. Dirck (updated 2022-09-14)
Distribution by: Jack K. Dirck (updated 2022-09-14)
Life history by: Jack K. Dirck (updated 2022-09-14)
Trends and threats by: Jack K. Dirck (updated 2022-09-14)
Comments by: Jack K. Dirck (updated 2022-09-14)
Edited by: Ann T. Chang (2022-09-14)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2022 Melanophryniscus setiba: Restinga toadlet <https://amphibiaweb.org/species/7952> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Mar 24, 2023.
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2023. <https://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 24 Mar 2023.
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