Nectophrynoides viviparus
family: Bufonidae

© 2009 Benjamin Tapley / Durrell (1 of 4)
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Least Concern (LC)
CITES Appendix I
Other International Status None
National Status None
Regional Status None

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Tanzania, United Republic of


View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.


From the IUCN Red List Species Account:


Range Description

In the previous assessment, this species was known only from the Uluguru and Udzungwa Mountains in the east and Mount Rungwe in the south of Tanzania. Its range has been expanded to include Mahenge, the Livingston and Rubeho Mountains. It is a montane species ranging from 1,350-2,800m asl occurring in approximately six threat-defined locations. The extent of occurrence (EOO) is 55,263 km2 and a rough estimate of its area of occupancy (AOO) equals 2,399 km2.

Habitat and Ecology

It lives in sub-montane and montane forest, and montane grassland, where it is found low in the vegetation and on the ground. It can tolerate some disturbance to its habitat and can survive in banana plantations, but probably not in very open areas. It breeds by internal fertilization, the females retaining the larvae internally in the oviduct until little toadlets are born.


It is a relatively common species, but its population is suspected to be both severely fragmented and decreasing due to ongoing habitat loss and degradation.

Population Trend


Major Threats

The major threat to this species is habitat disturbance, especially at lower altitudes, due to agricultural encroachment, wood extraction and expanding human settlements.

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
It occurs in several forest reserves, including the Uluguru Nature Reserve. It might occur in the Udzungwa National Park, but has thus far not been recorded. It is listed on CITES Appendix I.

Conservation Needed
Improved protection of its habitat and management of protected areas is required.

Research Needed
Further information is required on the species' distribution and population status.

Red List Status

Least Concern (LC)


Listed as Least Concern because of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and degree of tolerance to disturbance.

Taxonomic Notes

Further taxonomic investigations are required on this species as more than one taxon may be represented.


IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2016. Nectophrynoides viviparus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T54846A16950142. .Downloaded on 20 January 2019


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