Ingerophrynus philippinicus
family: Bufonidae

© 2005 Pierre Fidenci (1 of 10)
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Least Concern (LC)
Other International Status None
National Status None
Regional Status None

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Philippines



View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.

From the IUCN Red List Species Account:


Range Description

This species occurs on Balabac, Bugsuk, Palawan, Dumaran, Linapacan, Culion, and Busuanga in the Palawan Island group of the Philippines, where it occurs between 0–500 m asl. It is restricted to the Palawan Faunal Region and is not expected to occur more widely (A. Diesmos pers. comm. March 2018).

Habitat and Ecology

It thrives in degraded habitats and man-made environments, and is occasionally found in pristine lowland and montane rainforests. It breeds in water, where the larvae also develop.


It is abundant and one of the most common species in the Philippines (A. Diesmos pers. comm. March 2018). Its population is considered to be stable.

Population Trend


Major Threats

It is an adaptable species that is unlikely to be facing any significant threats.

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
The range of this species includes several protected areas. In addition, the Strategic Environmental Plan (SEP) for Palawan for areas was put into place by the national government in 1992, which aims to divide the island into a network of environmentally critical areas above 1,000 m asl (ECAN - Environmentally Critical Areas Network). The plan is operationalized on a local level by the Palawan Council for Sustainable Development. The map of these areas is currently being updated to include lowland areas below 1,000 m asl.

The Global Conservation Fund established a $1 million endowment fund for the Mount Mantalingajan range. The funds are held by the Philippine Tropical Forest Conservation Foundation and are used to protect remaining forest on the mountain.

The Philippine Tropical Forest Conservation Foundation is also managing about $30 million in funds from debt payments due to the US government, which are instead allocated for spending during 2016-2026 towards forest protection in three priority areas: Palawan Island, the Sierra Madre on Luzon Island, and eastern Mindanao Island.

Conservation Needed

No conservation measures are needed for this species in the immediate future.

Research Needed
More information is needed on this species' distribution, population size and trends.

Red List Status

Least Concern (LC)


Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a degree of habitat modification, and presumed large population.


IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2018. Ingerophrynus philippinicus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T54734A114915002. .Downloaded on 24 February 2019


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