[Description originally from Rhinella martyri , now a synonym of R. margaritifera (Pereyra et al. 2021).]
A large toad species of the Bufo (Rhinella) margaritifera group. (1) SVL of females 64.7 +/- 3.4 mm, of males 55.3 +/- 5.8 mm; (2) protruding bony knob at the angle of jaws; (3) canthus rostralis with a crest, concave laterally; (4) heel just reaches posterior margin of eye when hindlimbs adpressed; (5) cephalic crests hypertrophied in females and postorbital crests laterally extending and very distinct in males; (6) neural spines protruding in females, distinct in males; (7) tympanum large round or ovoid but smaller than eye diameter; (8) parotoid glands relatively small, triangular, posteriorly elongated; (9) upper eyelid without projections; (10) toes about three-quarters webbed, three phalanges free on toe 4; (11) tarsal fold absent; (12) skin tuberculate on dorsal and dorsolateral surfaces, more spinous on limbs; (13) oblique row of tubercles extending from posterior end of postorbital crest to groin; (14) snout pointed dorsally and acute laterally with small fleshy ridge going from tip of snout to the upper lip; (15) iris golden with black reticulations (Fouquet et al 2007).
This species is highly polymorphic. The coloration of the back varies from dark brown to light gray and sometimes even reddish. The patterns are also very variable, with a variety of leaflike patterns with successive shades of dark to light brown or gray. A whitish middorsal stripe can occur and can be very thin to 5 mm wide (Fouquet et al 2007).
Distribution and Habitat
Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname
Primary and secondary rainforest of south-western French Guiana, Suriname, Guyana, as well as Brazil (Amapa and probably northern Para), Colombia, Ecuador, and probably north-eastern Venezuela.
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
This abundant species reproduces in temporary ponds and along the flooded beds of rivers during the rainy season. Males call from the ground after heavy rainfall at dawn and night. The advertisement calls are around 295 ms long and composed of approximately 6 groups of pulses on average. These pulses are usually in pairs except the last pulse group that comprises more pulses (up to six). The frequency (mean=1.17 kHz) increases during the call while the time between pulse groups decreases. Amplexus is axillary.
Fouquet et al 2007 noted the similarity and allopatry of Rhinella martyri with R. margaritifera, although slight morphological differences exist in the shape of the head, the body size and the supratympanic crests in females (see Fouquet et al. 2007). In 2021, Pereyra et al. synonymized R. martyri with R. margaritifera by implication.
Fouquet, A., Gaucher, P., Blanc, M. and Velez-Rodriguez, C. M. (2007). ''Description of two new species of Rhinella (Anura: Bufonidae) from the lowlands of the Guiana shield.'' Zootaxa, 1663, 17-32.
Pereyra, M. O., B. L. Blotto, D. Baldo, J. C. Chaparro, S. R. Ron, A. J. Elias-Costa, P. P. Iglesias, P. J. Venegas, M. T. C. Thomé, J. J. Ospina-Sarria, N. M. Maciel, M. Rada, F. Kolenc, C. Borteiro, M. Rivera-Correa, F. J. M. Rojas-Runjaic, J. Moravec, I. De la Riva, W. C. Wheeler, S. Castroviejo-Fisher, T. Grant, C. F. B. Haddad, and J. Faivovich (2021). "Evolution in the genus Rhinella: A total evidence phylogenetic analysis of Neotropical True Toads (Anura: Bufonidae)." Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 447, 1–156. [link]
Originally submitted by: Antoine Fouquet (first posted 2008-01-14)
Edited by: Kellie Whittaker, Michelle S. Koo (2021-07-15)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2021 Rhinella margaritifera: South American Common Toad <https://amphibiaweb.org/species/228> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Oct 26, 2021.
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2021. <https://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 26 Oct 2021.
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