Kotagama's Dwarf Toad
Species Description: Fernando P, Dayawansa N and Siriwardhane M. 1994. Bufo kotagamai, a new toad (Bufonidae) from Sri Lanka. Journal of South Asian Natural History. 1 (1): 119-124.
© 2011 Champika Sandaruwan Holiya Bandara (1 of 1)
Colour in life: orange brown on dorsal surface, mottled with dark brown. A light cross band between the eyes. A distinct dark cross band on forearm, forefoot, tarsus and tibia. A less distinct cross bar on upper arm and femur. Lower jaw with alternate dark and light markings. Ventral surface whitish, mottled with dark brown, the mottling present as a median dark band especially evident over the sternum. Supraorbital and parietal ridges, tips of digits and tips of spinous warts black. Colour in alcohol: the dorsal colour tends to become duller and take on a greyish hue (Fernando et al., 1994).
Distribution and Habitat
It is also known from Massena, Erathna, and Delwala forest areas of the Samanala Nature Reserve. It favors a few primary lowland rain forests in the wet zone with elevations below 1,070 m (Peabotuwage et al.,2012).
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Possible reasons for amphibian decline
General habitat alteration and loss
As of yet, no molecular phylogenetic analysis has been done on this species to determine its relation to other representatives of the same genus.
Batuwita S, Udugampala S, DeSilva M, Diao J and Edirisinghe U. (2019). "A review of amphibian fauna of Sri Lanka: distribution, recent taxonomic changes and conservation." Journal of Animal Diversity, 1(2), 44-82. [link]
Fernando P, Dayawansa N and Siriwardhane M. (1994). " Bufo kotagamai, a new toad (Bufonidae) from Sri Lanka." Journal of South Asian Natural History, 1(1), 119-124.
Peabotuwage, I., Bandara, I. N., Samarasinghe, D., Perera, N., Madawala, M., Amarasinghe, C., Kandambi, H. K. D., and Karunarathna, D. M. S. S. (2012). ''). Range extension for Duttaphrynus kotagamai (Amphibia: Bufonidae) and a preliminary checklist of herpetofauna from the Uda Mäliboda Trail in Samanala Nature Reserve, Sri Lanka.'' Amphibian and Reptile Conservation, 5(2), 52–64.
Originally submitted by: Dayupathi Eranda Nipunika Mandawala (2021-05-08)
Description by: Dayupathi Eranda Nipunika Mandawala (updated 2021-05-08)
Distribution by: Dayupathi Eranda Nipunika Mandawala (updated 2021-05-08)
Life history by: Dayupathi Eranda Nipunika Mandawala (updated 2021-05-08)
Comments by: Dayupathi Eranda Nipunika Mandawala (updated 2021-05-08)
Edited by: Michelle S. Koo (2021-05-08)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2021 Duttaphrynus kotagamai: Kotagama's Dwarf Toad <https://amphibiaweb.org/species/215> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Oct 18, 2021.
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2021. <https://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 18 Oct 2021.
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