This species is known from a single locality at an elevation of 2,000 m asl upon the Pico do Selado, District of Monte Verde, Municipality of Camanducaia, state of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil (Caramaschi and Cruz 2011). Surveys in the vicinity of the type locality (2010-2011) have not shed any new records (I. Amaral pers. comm. July 2013), suggesting that this may be a truly restricted species, so while its extent of occurrence (EOO) is currently unquantifiable, it is likely to be significantly less than 100 km2. The type locality is also considered to be a single threat-defined location based on livestock and anthropogenic disturbance at the site.
Habitat and Ecology
No habitat and ecology information is currently known for this species; however, the area surrounding the Pico do Selado in Monte Verde is montane forest, so it may be possible that this species could be associated to this macrohabitat. Congeners are known to inhabit small ponds, flooded areas and bromeliads, with both diurnal and nocturnal behaviour observed within the genus (Caramaschi and Cruz 2011). Taxa in this species group are known to reproduce in shallow temporary rivulets (C. Cruz pers. comm. July 2013), so it is possible that this species may undergo aquatic larval development.
The only known record of this species is the holotype, collected in 1953 (Caramaschi and Cruz 2011). Attempts to relocate the species started in 2000 through to 2011 (U. Caramaschi pers. comm. July 2013, I. Amaral pers. comm. July 2013), with at least seven trips to the type locality and one to the surrounding area, without any new additional records (U. Caramaschi pers. comm. July 2013, C. Cruz pers. comm. 2013, I. Amaral pers. comm. July 2013). Given the lack of recent records and the threats to this species' area, it could be possibly extinct.
The base of the mountain where this species is found is being subjected to afforestation with pine and eucalyptus plantations for paper production (U. Caramaschi pers. comm. July 2013, I. Amaral pers. comm. July 2013). While the species is considered to occur on the summit of Pico do Selado and may not necessarily be impacted by the plantations, there are trails on the summit that are regularly used by horses and motorcycles, in addition to cattle trampling and tourism to the area (U. Caramaschi pers. comm. July 2013, C. Cruz pers. comm. July 2013, I. Amaral pers. comm. July 2013). Should the species occur in the vicinity, this is also being heavily impacted by loss of native forests and fields in favour of commercial plantations (I. Amaral pers. comm. July 2013).
It is not known to occur in any protected area, and habitat protection is needed at its only known site. Urgent surveys are needed to determine if this species is still extant and if so, studies into its ecology are also needed.
Red List Status
Critically Endangered (CR)
Listed as Critically Endangered given that it is considered to occur in a very circumscribed area, with an estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) considered to be well below 100 km2, it is known from a single threat-defined location, and there is a continuing decline of its presumed natural habitat on the summit of Pico do Selado. Given that this species is only known from a single specimen collected in 1953, surveys are urgently needed to determine if the species is still extant.
IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2013. Melanophryniscus peritus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T46086107A46086111. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-2.RLTS.T46086107A46086111.en