Mesopotamian beaked toad
Rhinella rostrata was originally thought to be closely related to Incilius coniferus (originally Bufo coniferous). Incilius coniferus has a different snout shape, a visible tympanum, and its digits have more webbing. The closest related species is now believed to be Rhinella truebae, originally named Rhamphophryne truebae. There are three major differences between the two species: ear morphology, vertebral counts, and sacrococcygeal articulation. The tympanum of R. truebae is visible, specifically from the ventral side. Rhinella truebae also has eight presacral vertebrae and the sacrum is combined with the coccyx to produce the sacrococcygeal articulation (Noble 1920, Lynch and Renjifo 1990).
In life, it is yellowish brown with dark brown markings that appear as crossbands on the legs. The frog has a yellowish white coloring with a dark brown reticulation on the ventral side. (Noble 1920).
Variation in this species is not well studied due to the low number of specimens found in the field. One juvenile specimen differed from the rest of the specimens in having an especially sharp canthus rostralis. Both of the smaller individuals have redder and less yellow coloring overall than the adult male holotype (Noble 1920).
Distribution and Habitat
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Trends and Threats
Possible reasons for amphibian decline
Habitat modification from deforestation, or logging related activities
Rhinella rostrata is a sister species to Rhinella truebae. Rhinella rostrata was originally ascribed the genus name “Bufo”, and subsequently the genus name “Rhamphophryne” (Lynch and Renjifo 1990).
Rhinella comes from the Greek words “rhinos” and “ella” and translates into “little nose” (Dodd 2013). The species name rostrata has not been defined by the species authority, but comes from the Latin word “rostratus” which translates to “having a beak, hooked, with a crooked point” (Lewis 1890).
Bolivar, W. and Lynch, J. 2004. Rhinella rostrata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. iucnredlist.org.
Dodd, C. K. 2013. Frogs of the United States and Canada. John Hopkins University: JHU Press.
Graybeal, A., and Cannatella, D.C. (1995). ''A new taxon of Bufonidae from Peru, with descriptions of two new species and a review of the phylogenetic status of supraspecific bufonid taxa.'' Herpetologica, 51(2), 105-131.
Lewis, C. T. 1890. An Elementary Latin Dictionary. New York, Cincinnati, and Chicago. American Book Company.
Lynch, J. D. and Renjifo, J.M. (1990). ''Two new toads (Bufonidae: Rhamphophryne) from the Northern Andes of Colombia.'' Journal of Herpetology, 24(4), 364-371.
Noble, G. K. 1920. Two new Batrachians from Colombia. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 42.9: 441-446.
Written by Shawna Ito (shawnaknito AT gmail.com), University of Nevada, Reno
First submitted 2015-06-12
Edited by Gordon Lau (2015-07-06)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2015 Rhinella rostrata: Mesopotamian beaked toad <http://amphibiaweb.org/species/417> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Dec 11, 2018.
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2018. <http://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 11 Dec 2018.
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