This species is known from the Cordillera de Guacamayos in north-eastern Ecuador (in Napo Provice) and from the Valle del Sibundoy in Putumayo department, southern Colombia. It probably occurs more widely than current records suggest, especially in areas between known sites. Its altitudinal range is 2,100-3,500m asl.
Habitat and Ecology
It lives in very wet tropical cloud forest, and is usually found at night on low vegetation and in leaf-litter, although it can be found up to 3m; specimens have been collected along a roadside, on moss in rock crevices. It is found both in undisturbed habitats and in disturbed forests, and individuals have been found away from water. Breeding is by direct development.
It is locally uncommon.
The major threat is habitat loss as a result of deforestation for agricultural development, the planting of illegal crops, fire, logging activities, and human settlement. An additional threat is pollution resulting from the spraying of illegal crops.
The range of this species in Ecuador overlaps several protected areas, including the Reserva Ecológica Cayambe-Coca, the Reserva Ecológica Antisana and Parque Nacional Sumaco in Ecuador. It has not been found in any protected areas in Colombia. Improved and expanded habitat protection is urgently needed to ensure the persistence of this species in its montane forest habiat.
Red List Status
Listed as Endangered because its Extent of Occurrence is less than 5,000 km2, its distribution is severely fragmented, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat in Ecuador and Colombia.
The Colombian populations have different skin texture and some morphological differences compared to Ecuadorian populations. More research is needed to determine whether or not this is in fact two separate species (D.F. Cisneros-Heredia pers. comm.).
Luis A. Coloma, Santiago Ron, Diego Cisneros-Heredia, Ana Almendáriz, Wilmar Bolívar 2010. Osornophryne guacamayo. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T54857A11202715. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-2.RLTS.T54857A11202715.en