Sclerophrys kassasii (Baha El Din, 1993)
Nile Valley Toad, dufdu'at al-qasas
Coloration: The dorsum is light olive gray with paired dark blotches in the interorbital, pectoral and sacral areas. There is usually a thin white mid-dorsal stripe. Ventral sides are white, occasionally with dark flecking. The femoral area has crimson patches. Posterior thighs and the area under the armpits may also have crimson blotches. Overall, males are more suffused with yellow and have a reduced dorsal pattern compared to females. The throat is pale orange in males (Baha El Din 2006, Baha El Din 1993).
Bufo kassasii resembles B. steindachneri but is smaller and less spinose with an indistinct parotoid and a larger tympanum (Baha El Din 1993).
Distribution and Habitat
Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Egypt
Unlike other Egyptian toads, Bufo kassasii is highly aquatic. It is common to densely vegetated aquatic areas such as reed swamps, rice fields, and overgrown canals. It has also been found associated with floating clumps of vegetation in the middle of the Nile River (Baha El Din 2006).
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
This species often occurs in very dense populations, especially in rice fields (Baha El Din 2006).
Trends and Threats
Possible reasons for amphibian decline
General habitat alteration and loss
Akef, M.S.A., and Schneider, H. (1993). ''Reproductive behavior and mating call pattern in Degen's toad.'' Journal of African Zoology, 107, 97-104.
Baha El Din, S.M. (1994). ''A contribution to the herpetology of Sinai.'' British Herpetological Society Bulletin, 48, 18-27.
Tandy, M., and Baha El Din, S. (2006). Amietophrynus kassasii. In: IUCN 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 03 March 2009.
Originally submitted by: Taha Jabbar (first posted 2009-02-24)
Edited by: Kellie Whittaker (2009-03-04)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2009 Sclerophrys kassasii: Nile Valley Toad <https://amphibiaweb.org/species/208> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Mar 26, 2023.
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2023. <https://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 26 Mar 2023.
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