Pelophryne api
family: Bufonidae

© 2007 Alexander Haas (1 of 2)

Frogs of Borneo account.

Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Endangered (EN)
Other International Status None
National Status None
Regional Status None

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Malaysia


View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.


From the IUCN Red List Species Account:


Range Description

This species is endemic to Borneo where it is known only from the type locality (Gunung Mulu National Park) in northern Sarawak, Malaysia; however, it might occur a little more widely. It has an altitudinal range of 65-1,200m asl.

Habitat and Ecology

All known specimens have been found in primary rainforest in limestone karst areas. The larvae are endotrophic and occur in small pools on the forest floor.


The population status and abundance of the species is not known.

Population Trend


Major Threats

It is not certain whether this species is entirely restricted to karst areas, but, if so, then its distribution is likely to be extremely patchy and localized, thereby exposing this species to the hazards of stochastic events.

Conservation Actions

The only known locality for the species is protected in Gunung Mulu National Park, a 52,000-ha park that is the most studied tropical karst area in the world. Further survey work is requried to determine the current population status of the species at this locality, and whether it might be present in other karst areas of Borneo.

Red List Status

Endangered (EN)


Listed as Endangered because its Extent of Occurrence is less than 5,000 km2, all individuals are in fewer than five locations, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat on Borneo.


Robert Inger, Indraneil Das, Robert Stuebing, Maklarin Lakim, Paul Yambun 2004. Pelophryne api. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T54865A11217226.


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