AmphibiaWeb - Plethodontidae
AMPHIBIAWEB

Plethodontidae

493 species in 28 genera

Commonly Called Lungless Salamanders


Plethodon shermani
Photo by Brad Moon
(Click for family gallery)

The largest family of extant salamanders with over 400 species. All members of this family lack lungs, relying on cutaneous respiration instead, and possess naso-labial grooves, which aid in chemoreception. This group was once thought to have arisen out of the Appalachian Mountains in the eastern United States, which remains a biodiversity hotspot for this family. Members within this group have adapted to stream, arboreal, terrestrial, fossorial (underground) and cave habitats. Currently there are two subfamilies, the Hemidactylinae and Plethodontinae, of which the latter has species capable of ballistically projecting their tongue (along with tongue skeleton) to capture prey (as in Hydromantes) as well as having webbed feet (tribe Bolitoglossini). Generalized in body form with four fingers and five toes (except when reduced to four toes in miniaturized species), plethodontids cover the spectrum of salamander sizes. Most species are direct developers.

With only a few of exceptions, this family is found in the New World and extends from southern Canada south through Bolivia and Brazil. The exceptions to the New World include species of the genus Hydromantes found in the Middle Western Mediterranean in Europe (other members of which also occur in California) and a single species known from Asia (Karsenia). It includes the only group of tropical salamanders which account for about 2/3 of the species and 40% of all salamanders.

News Highlight:

June 22, 2020: Plethodontid salamanders use protrusible, ballistic tongues that display high performance and work well in both cold and warm temperatures to capture prey. Deban et al (2020) show in a musculoskeletal and performance analysis that remarkable homoplastic evolution in the two major groups of plethodontid salamanders has transformed a muscle-powered, musculoskeletal system capable of only modest performance and subject to thermal sensitivity into an extreme-performance, spring-powered system that is thermally robust. Extreme examples exceed available muscle power using an elastic-recoil mechanism. Intermediate forms are not found, suggesting that incipient elastic forms maybe short-lived. The result is a rich array of functional patterns of tongue use in feeding, with remarkably specialized end points. See a video of the cold-proof tongue in action (DW)

February 25, 2019: Most salamanders must breath in both water and air so they use gills, lungs, skin, and other organs for breathing at various times during development. Plethodontid salamanders, also known as lungless salamanders, do not even have lungs and rely heavily on breathing through their skin and an area near the back of their mouth. Until recently, the molecular changes that allow lungless salamanders to efficiently breath through their skin have remained completely unknown. Lewis et al. (2018) show that lungless salamanders express a novel paralogue of the gene surfactant-associated protein C (SFTPC) within areas (such as the skin) that lungless salamanders use to breathe. In other vertebrates, SFTPC is critical for gas exchange in the lungs and is expressed only in the lungs. This new paralogous gene appears to be found only in salamanders, but, similar to SFTPC, in lunged salamanders it is expressed only in the lung. Lewis et al. (2018) propose that this new gene paralogue may be one reason lungless salamanders have thrived and account for more than two-thirds of salamander species. (M Womack)

July 23, 2018: How will salamanders deal with climate change? A new experimental study (Riddell et al. 2018) found that plethodontid salamanders show remarkably plastic responses to ecological conditions, which bode well for anticipated increases in climatic temperatures. The study integrated experimental physiology and behavior into a mechanistic species distribution model and predicted extinction risk based on the capacity of individual salamanders to maintain energy balance both with and without plasticity. The important conclusion is that incorporating plasticity fundamentally alters ecological predictions by reducing risk of extinction. These findings help understand how salamanders in the southern Appalachian biodiversity hotspot dealt effectively with Pleistocene climatic events. They likely "sheltered in place", as suggested by the many phylogeographic studies showing substantial geographic structuring of genetic variation. Read the press release. (DW)

March 14, 2016: Plethodontid salamanders are more agile than other salamanders and they are known to jump, especially to escape predation. Ryerson et al. (2016) studied jumping in six species (three genera). All were capable of jumping by lateral body bending followed by rapid straightening, which propels the salamander into the air. Most likely force to propel the animal is applied through one or both hind limbs. Salamanders jumped a maximum of 1.8 times head+body length and jump height is scaled with body size and forelimb length. Species did not differ in any other aspects of performance, except takeoff velocity where longer salamanders are slower. No correlation was found between tail length, or even presence of a tail, and any variable. Further kinematic analysis is needed to understand how salamanders maintain jumping performance no matter the size. (DW)

November 28, 2016: Minute salamanders of the genus Thorius were once very common in montane habitats bordering the eastern and southern margins of the Mexican Plateau, where they have experienced an adaptive radiation in miniature. Molecular data have proven to be essential for sorting specimens into species, which are then discerned to differ in morphology, ecology, elevational distribution, etc. Species detection is an ongoing activity, made difficult by the increasing rarity of these tiny animals. Parra-Olea et al. (2016) revises the taxonomy of the southern and easternmost members of the genus in Oaxaca, Mexico, redescribing two species while describing and naming three others. The new species all are considered to be critically endangered, and the entire genus appears to be on the brink of extinction from as yet undetermined causes. (DW)

Written by AmphibiaWeb

Notable Family Characteristics

  • All species are lungless
  • Species have diversified into a wide variety of habitats, such as stream, arboreal, terrestrial, fossorial (underground) and cave habitats
  • Morphological characters include: 1) pterygoid absent; 2) naso-labial groove present; 3) lacrimals absent; 4) otic and occipital elements fused; 5) elongate, up to 60 vertebrae; 6) teeth have a distinct crown and pedicel; 7) males possess a mental gland
  • Fertilization internal
  • Direct development in most species
  • Distribution predominantly North America through South America to Bolivia and Brasil, with exceptions of one genus in Korea (Karsenia) and some species of Hydromantes in Europe
Plethodontidae Richness map

Cartography Credit: Zoe Yoo, UC Berkeley
Range maps sources: AmphibiaWeb, UC Berkeley, and IUCN RedList

Relevant Reference

Larson, Allan, David Wake, and Tom Devitt. 2006. Plethodontidae. Lungless Salamanders. Version 26 September 2006. http://tolweb.org/Plethodontidae/15441/2006.09.26 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

Parra-Olea G, Rovito SM, García-París M, Maisano JA, Wake DB, Hanken J. 2016. Biology of tiny animals: three new species of minute salamanders (Plethodontidae: Thorius) from Oaxaca, Mexico. PeerJ 4:e2694 https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.2694

Shen, X., D. Liang, M. Chen, R.-L. Mao, D. B. Wake, and P. Zhang. 2016. Enlarged multilocus data set provides surprisingly younger time of origin for the Plethodontidae, the largest family of salamanders. Systematic Biology 65: 66–81.

Wake, D. B. 1966. Comparative osteology and evolution of the lungless salamanders, family Plethodontidae. Memoirs of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 4: 1–111.

Wake, D. B. 2012. Taxonomy of salamanders of the family Plethodontidae (Amphibia: Caudata). Zootaxa 3484: 75–82.

Subfamily Hemidactyliinae (387 species)

Genus Aquiloeurycea (6 species)    [subfamily Hemidactyliinae]
Aquiloeurycea cafetalera account photos no sound/video
Aquiloeurycea cephalica no account photos no sound/video
Aquiloeurycea galeanae no account photos no sound/video
Aquiloeurycea praecellens no account no photos no sound/video
Aquiloeurycea quetzalanensis no account photos no sound/video
Aquiloeurycea scandens no account photos no sound/video

Genus Batrachoseps (23 species)    [subfamily Hemidactyliinae]
Batrachoseps wakei no account photos no sound/video
Batrachoseps (Batrachoseps) altasierrae account photos no sound/video
Batrachoseps (Batrachoseps) aridus account photos no sound/video
Batrachoseps (Batrachoseps) attenuatus account photos no sound/video
Batrachoseps (Batrachoseps) bramei account photos no sound/video
Batrachoseps (Batrachoseps) diabolicus account photos no sound/video
Batrachoseps (Batrachoseps) gabrieli account photos no sound/video
Batrachoseps (Batrachoseps) gavilanensis account photos no sound/video
Batrachoseps (Batrachoseps) gregarius account photos no sound/video
Batrachoseps (Batrachoseps) incognitus account photos no sound/video
Batrachoseps (Batrachoseps) kawia account photos no sound/video
Batrachoseps (Batrachoseps) luciae account photos no sound/video
Batrachoseps (Batrachoseps) major account photos no sound/video
Batrachoseps (Batrachoseps) minor account photos no sound/video
Batrachoseps (Batrachoseps) nigriventris account photos no sound/video
Batrachoseps (Batrachoseps) pacificus account photos no sound/video
Batrachoseps (Batrachoseps) regius account photos no sound/video
Batrachoseps (Batrachoseps) relictus account photos no sound/video
Batrachoseps (Batrachoseps) simatus account photos no sound/video
Batrachoseps (Batrachoseps) stebbinsi account photos no sound/video
Batrachoseps (Plethopsis) campi account photos no sound/video
Batrachoseps (Plethopsis) robustus account photos no sound/video
Batrachoseps (Plethopsis) wrighti account photos no sound/video

Genus Bolitoglossa (136 species)    [subfamily Hemidactyliinae]
Bolitoglossa awajun no account no photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa qeqom no account no photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Bolitoglossa) alberchi no account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Bolitoglossa) flaviventris no account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Bolitoglossa) insularis account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Bolitoglossa) jacksoni account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Bolitoglossa) lignicolor account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Bolitoglossa) mexicana account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Bolitoglossa) mombachoensis account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Bolitoglossa) mulleri no account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Bolitoglossa) odonnelli no account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Bolitoglossa) platydactyla no account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Bolitoglossa) salvinii no account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Bolitoglossa) striatula account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Bolitoglossa) yucatana account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) adspersa account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) altamazonica no account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) anthracina account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) aurae account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) aureogularis account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) biseriata no account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) borburata no account no photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) bramei account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) caldwellae no account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) capitana no account no photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) cerroensis account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) chica no account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) chucantiensis account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) colonnea account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) compacta account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) copia no account no photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) cuna no account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) digitigrada no account no photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) diminuta account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) epimela account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) equatoriana no account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) gomezi account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) gracilis account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) guaneae account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) guaramacalensis no account no photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) hiemalis no account no photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) hypacra no account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) jugivagans account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) kamuk account no photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) leandrae account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) lozanoi no account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) madeira no account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) magnifica account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) marmorea account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) medemi no account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) minutula account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) mucuyensis account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) nicefori no account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) nigrescens account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) obscura account no photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) orestes account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) palmata no account no photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) pandi account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) paraensis no account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) peruviana no account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) pesrubra account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) phalarosoma no account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) pygmaea account no photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) ramosi account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) robinsoni account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) robusta account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) savagei no account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) schizodactyla account photos sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) silverstonei no account no photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) sima no account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) sombra account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) sooyorum account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) splendida no account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) subpalmata account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) tamaense no account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) tapajonica no account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) tatamae account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) taylori no account no photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) tica account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) vallecula no account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) walkeri no account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) yariguiensis no account no photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Magnadigita) carri no account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Magnadigita) cataguana account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Magnadigita) celaque account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Magnadigita) centenorum no account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Magnadigita) conanti account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Magnadigita) copinhorum no account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Magnadigita) cuchumatana no account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Magnadigita) daryorum no account no photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Magnadigita) decora no account no photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Magnadigita) diaphora no account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Magnadigita) dunni no account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Magnadigita) engelhardti no account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Magnadigita) eremia no account no photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Magnadigita) flavimembris no account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Magnadigita) franklini no account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Magnadigita) heiroreias account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Magnadigita) helmrichi no account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Magnadigita) huehuetenanguensis account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Magnadigita) kaqchikelorum no account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Magnadigita) la no account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Magnadigita) lincolni account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Magnadigita) longissima account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Magnadigita) meliana no account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Magnadigita) morio account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Magnadigita) ninadormida no account no photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Magnadigita) nussbaumi no account no photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Magnadigita) omniumsanctorum no account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Magnadigita) oresbia account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Magnadigita) pacaya account no photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Magnadigita) porrasorum no account no photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Magnadigita) psephena no account no photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Magnadigita) rostrata no account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Magnadigita) suchitanensis no account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Magnadigita) synoria no account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Magnadigita) tenebrosa account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Magnadigita) tzultacaj no account no photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Magnadigita) zacapensis account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Mayamandra) hartwegi no account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Mayamandra) stuarti no account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Mayamandra) veracrucis no account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Mayamandra) xibalba no account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Nanotriton) chinanteca account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Nanotriton) nympha no account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Nanotriton) occidentalis account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Nanotriton) rufescens account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Oaxakia) coaxtlahuacana no account no photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Oaxakia) hermosa no account no photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Oaxakia) macrinii no account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Oaxakia) oaxacensis no account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Oaxakia) riletti account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Oaxakia) zapoteca no account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Pachymandra) alvaradoi account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Pachymandra) dofleini account photos no sound/video
Bolitoglossa (Pachymandra) indio account photos no sound/video

Genus Bradytriton (1 species)    [subfamily Hemidactyliinae]
Bradytriton silus account photos no sound/video

Genus Chiropterotriton (23 species)    [subfamily Hemidactyliinae]
Chiropterotriton arboreus no account photos no sound/video
Chiropterotriton aureus no account photos no sound/video
Chiropterotriton casasi no account photos no sound/video
Chiropterotriton ceronorum no account photos no sound/video
Chiropterotriton chico account photos no sound/video
Chiropterotriton chiropterus no account photos no sound/video
Chiropterotriton chondrostega no account photos no sound/video
Chiropterotriton cieloensis no account photos no sound/video
Chiropterotriton cracens no account photos no sound/video
Chiropterotriton dimidiatus no account photos no sound/video
Chiropterotriton infernalis no account photos no sound/video
Chiropterotriton lavae no account photos no sound/video
Chiropterotriton magnipes no account photos no sound/video
Chiropterotriton melipona account photos no sound/video
Chiropterotriton miquihuanus no account photos no sound/video
Chiropterotriton mosaueri account photos no sound/video
Chiropterotriton multidentatus account photos no sound/video
Chiropterotriton nubilus no account photos no sound/video
Chiropterotriton orculus no account photos no sound/video
Chiropterotriton perotensis account photos no sound/video
Chiropterotriton priscus no account photos no sound/video
Chiropterotriton terrestris no account photos no sound/video
Chiropterotriton totonacus account photos no sound/video

Genus Cryptotriton (7 species)    [subfamily Hemidactyliinae]
Cryptotriton alvarezdeltoroi no account photos no sound/video
Cryptotriton monzoni account photos no sound/video
Cryptotriton nasalis account photos no sound/video
Cryptotriton necopinus account no photos no sound/video
Cryptotriton sierraminensis account photos no sound/video
Cryptotriton veraepacis no account photos no sound/video
Cryptotriton xucaneborum no account photos no sound/video

Genus Dendrotriton (8 species)    [subfamily Hemidactyliinae]
Dendrotriton bromeliacius no account photos no sound/video
Dendrotriton chujorum account photos no sound/video
Dendrotriton cuchumatanus no account photos no sound/video
Dendrotriton kekchiorum no account photos no sound/video
Dendrotriton megarhinus account photos no sound/video
Dendrotriton rabbi no account photos no sound/video
Dendrotriton sanctibarbarus account photos no sound/video
Dendrotriton xolocalcae no account photos no sound/video

Genus Eurycea (34 species)    [subfamily Hemidactyliinae]
Eurycea arenicola account photos no sound/video
Eurycea braggi no account photos no sound/video
Eurycea hillisi no account photos no sound/video
Eurycea nereus no account no photos no sound/video
Eurycea paludicola no account photos no sound/video
Eurycea sphagnicola no account photos no sound/video
Eurycea subfluvicola account photos no sound/video
Eurycea wallacei account photos no sound/video
Eurycea (Eurycea) guttolineata account photos no sound/video
Eurycea (Eurycea) longicauda account photos no sound/video
Eurycea (Eurycea) lucifuga account photos no sound/video
Eurycea (Manculus) aquatica account photos no sound/video
Eurycea (Manculus) bislineata account photos no sound/video
Eurycea (Manculus) chamberlaini account photos no sound/video
Eurycea (Manculus) cirrigera account photos no sound/video
Eurycea (Manculus) junaluska account photos no sound/video
Eurycea (Manculus) quadridigitata account photos no sound/video
Eurycea (Manculus) wilderae account photos no sound/video
Eurycea (Notiomolge) latitans account photos no sound/video
Eurycea (Notiomolge) nana account photos no sound/video
Eurycea (Notiomolge) neotenes account no photos no sound/video
Eurycea (Notiomolge) pterophila account no photos no sound/video
Eurycea (Notiomolge) sosorum account photos no sound/video
Eurycea (Notiomolge) tridentifera account no photos no sound/video
Eurycea (Notiomolge) troglodytes account no photos no sound/video
Eurycea (Paedomolge) chisholmensis account photos no sound/video
Eurycea (Paedomolge) naufragia account photos no sound/video
Eurycea (Paedomolge) tonkawae account photos no sound/video
Eurycea (Typhlomolge) rathbuni account photos no sound/video
Eurycea (Typhlomolge) robusta account photos no sound/video
Eurycea (Typhlomolge) waterlooensis account photos no sound/video
Eurycea (Typhlotriton) multiplicata account photos no sound/video
Eurycea (Typhlotriton) spelaea account photos no sound/video
Eurycea (Typhlotriton) tynerensis account photos no sound/video

Genus Gyrinophilus (4 species)    [subfamily Hemidactyliinae]
Gyrinophilus gulolineatus account photos no sound/video
Gyrinophilus palleucus account photos no sound/video
Gyrinophilus porphyriticus account photos no sound/video
Gyrinophilus subterraneus account photos no sound/video

Genus Hemidactylium (1 species)    [subfamily Hemidactyliinae]
Hemidactylium scutatum account photos no sound/video

Genus Isthmura (7 species)    [subfamily Hemidactyliinae]
Isthmura bellii account photos no sound/video
Isthmura boneti no account photos no sound/video
Isthmura corrugata account photos no sound/video
Isthmura gigantea no account photos no sound/video
Isthmura maxima no account photos no sound/video
Isthmura naucampatepetl account photos no sound/video
Isthmura sierraoccidentalis no account photos no sound/video

Genus Ixalotriton (2 species)    [subfamily Hemidactyliinae]
Ixalotriton niger account photos no sound/video
Ixalotriton parvus account photos no sound/video

Genus Nototriton (20 species)    [subfamily Hemidactyliinae]
Nototriton (Bryotriton) barbouri account photos no sound/video
Nototriton (Bryotriton) brodiei no account photos no sound/video
Nototriton (Bryotriton) lignicola account photos no sound/video
Nototriton (Bryotriton) limnospectator account photos no sound/video
Nototriton (Bryotriton) mime no account photos no sound/video
Nototriton (Bryotriton) nelsoni no account photos no sound/video
Nototriton (Bryotriton) oreadorum no account no photos no sound/video
Nototriton (Bryotriton) picucha account photos no sound/video
Nototriton (Bryotriton) stuarti account photos no sound/video
Nototriton (Bryotriton) tomamorum account photos no sound/video
Nototriton (Nototriton) abscondens no account photos no sound/video
Nototriton (Nototriton) costaricense no account no photos no sound/video
Nototriton (Nototriton) gamezi account photos no sound/video
Nototriton (Nototriton) guanacaste account photos no sound/video
Nototriton (Nototriton) major no account no photos no sound/video
Nototriton (Nototriton) matama no account photos no sound/video
Nototriton (Nototriton) picadoi account photos no sound/video
Nototriton (Nototriton) richardi no account photos no sound/video
Nototriton (Nototriton) saslaya no account no photos no sound/video
Nototriton (Nototriton) tapanti no account no photos no sound/video

Genus Nyctanolis (1 species)    [subfamily Hemidactyliinae]
Nyctanolis pernix account photos no sound/video

Genus Oedipina (40 species)    [subfamily Hemidactyliinae]
Oedipina ecuatoriana no account no photos no sound/video
Oedipina villamizariorum no account no photos no sound/video
Oedipina (Oedipina) alfaroi no account photos no sound/video
Oedipina (Oedipina) altura account no photos no sound/video
Oedipina (Oedipina) capitalina account photos no sound/video
Oedipina (Oedipina) chortiorum account no photos no sound/video
Oedipina (Oedipina) collaris no account photos no sound/video
Oedipina (Oedipina) cyclocauda no account no photos no sound/video
Oedipina (Oedipina) gracilis account photos no sound/video
Oedipina (Oedipina) grandis account photos no sound/video
Oedipina (Oedipina) ignea no account no photos no sound/video
Oedipina (Oedipina) koehleri no account photos no sound/video
Oedipina (Oedipina) leptopoda account photos no sound/video
Oedipina (Oedipina) motaguae account no photos no sound/video
Oedipina (Oedipina) pacificensis account photos no sound/video
Oedipina (Oedipina) paucidentata no account no photos no sound/video
Oedipina (Oedipina) poelzi account photos no sound/video
Oedipina (Oedipina) pseudouniformis account photos no sound/video
Oedipina (Oedipina) salvadorensis no account photos no sound/video
Oedipina (Oedipina) stenopodia no account no photos no sound/video
Oedipina (Oedipina) stuarti no account no photos no sound/video
Oedipina (Oedipina) taylori no account photos no sound/video
Oedipina (Oedipina) tzutujilorum account no photos no sound/video
Oedipina (Oedipina) uniformis account photos no sound/video
Oedipina (Oeditriton) kasios account photos no sound/video
Oedipina (Oeditriton) nica account photos no sound/video
Oedipina (Oeditriton) quadra account no photos no sound/video
Oedipina (Oedopinola) alleni account photos no sound/video
Oedipina (Oedopinola) berlini no account photos no sound/video
Oedipina (Oedopinola) carablanca account photos no sound/video
Oedipina (Oedopinola) complex no account photos no sound/video
Oedipina (Oedopinola) elongata no account photos no sound/video
Oedipina (Oedopinola) fortunensis account photos no sound/video
Oedipina (Oedopinola) gephyra account photos no sound/video
Oedipina (Oedopinola) maritima account no photos no sound/video
Oedipina (Oedopinola) nimaso no account no photos no sound/video
Oedipina (Oedopinola) parvipes no account photos no sound/video
Oedipina (Oedopinola) petiola no account no photos no sound/video
Oedipina (Oedopinola) savagei account photos no sound/video
Oedipina (Oedopinola) tomasi account photos no sound/video

Genus Parvimolge (1 species)    [subfamily Hemidactyliinae]
Parvimolge townsendi account photos no sound/video

Genus Pseudoeurycea (40 species)    [subfamily Hemidactyliinae]
Pseudoeurycea ahuitzotl no account photos no sound/video
Pseudoeurycea altamontana no account photos no sound/video
Pseudoeurycea amuzga account photos no sound/video
Pseudoeurycea anitae no account no photos no sound/video
Pseudoeurycea aquatica account photos no sound/video
Pseudoeurycea aurantia no account photos no sound/video
Pseudoeurycea brunnata no account photos no sound/video
Pseudoeurycea cochranae no account photos no sound/video
Pseudoeurycea conanti no account photos no sound/video
Pseudoeurycea exspectata no account photos no sound/video
Pseudoeurycea firscheini no account photos no sound/video
Pseudoeurycea gadovii no account photos no sound/video
Pseudoeurycea goebeli no account photos no sound/video
Pseudoeurycea granitum account photos no sound/video
Pseudoeurycea juarezi no account photos no sound/video
Pseudoeurycea kuautli no account no photos no sound/video
Pseudoeurycea leprosa no account photos no sound/video
Pseudoeurycea lineola account photos no sound/video
Pseudoeurycea longicauda no account photos no sound/video
Pseudoeurycea lynchi account photos no sound/video
Pseudoeurycea melanomolga no account photos no sound/video
Pseudoeurycea mixcoatl no account no photos no sound/video
Pseudoeurycea mixteca no account photos no sound/video
Pseudoeurycea mystax no account photos no sound/video
Pseudoeurycea nigromaculata no account photos no sound/video
Pseudoeurycea obesa no account photos no sound/video
Pseudoeurycea orchileucos no account photos no sound/video
Pseudoeurycea orchimelas no account photos no sound/video
Pseudoeurycea papenfussi account no photos no sound/video
Pseudoeurycea rex account photos no sound/video
Pseudoeurycea robertsi account photos no sound/video
Pseudoeurycea ruficauda account photos no sound/video
Pseudoeurycea saltator account photos no sound/video
Pseudoeurycea smithi no account photos no sound/video
Pseudoeurycea tenchalli no account no photos no sound/video
Pseudoeurycea teotepec no account no photos no sound/video
Pseudoeurycea tlahcuiloh no account photos no sound/video
Pseudoeurycea tlilicxitl no account photos no sound/video
Pseudoeurycea unguidentis no account no photos no sound/video
Pseudoeurycea werleri no account photos no sound/video

Genus Pseudotriton (2 species)    [subfamily Hemidactyliinae]
Pseudotriton montanus account photos no sound/video
Pseudotriton ruber account photos no sound/video

Genus Stereochilus (1 species)    [subfamily Hemidactyliinae]
Stereochilus marginatus account photos no sound/video

Genus Thorius (29 species)    [subfamily Hemidactyliinae]
Thorius adelos account photos no sound/video
Thorius arboreus account photos no sound/video
Thorius aureus account photos no sound/video
Thorius boreas account photos no sound/video
Thorius dubitus account photos no sound/video
Thorius grandis no account photos no sound/video
Thorius hankeni account no photos no sound/video
Thorius infernalis account no photos no sound/video
Thorius insperatus no account no photos no sound/video
Thorius longicaudus no account photos no sound/video
Thorius lunaris account photos no sound/video
Thorius macdougalli no account photos no sound/video
Thorius magnipes account photos no sound/video
Thorius maxillabrochus no account photos no sound/video
Thorius minutissimus no account no photos no sound/video
Thorius minydemus account photos no sound/video
Thorius munificus account photos no sound/video
Thorius narismagnus account photos no sound/video
Thorius narisovalis no account photos no sound/video
Thorius omiltemi no account photos no sound/video
Thorius papaloae account photos no sound/video
Thorius pennatulus account photos no sound/video
Thorius pinicola no account photos no sound/video
Thorius pulmonaris no account photos no sound/video
Thorius schmidti account no photos no sound/video
Thorius smithi account photos no sound/video
Thorius spilogaster account photos no sound/video
Thorius tlaxiacus no account photos no sound/video
Thorius troglodytes account photos no sound/video

Genus Urspelerpes (1 species)    [subfamily Hemidactyliinae]
Urspelerpes brucei account photos no sound/video
Subfamily Plethodontinae (106 species)

Genus Aneides (10 species)    [subfamily Plethodontinae]
Aneides iecanus no account photos no sound/video
Aneides klamathensis account photos no sound/video
Aneides niger account photos no sound/video
Aneides (Aneides) ferreus account photos no sound/video
Aneides (Aneides) flavipunctatus account photos no sound/video
Aneides (Aneides) hardii account photos no sound/video
Aneides (Aneides) lugubris account photos sound/video
Aneides (Aneides) vagrans account photos sound/video
Aneides (Castaneides) aeneus account photos no sound/video
Aneides (Castaneides) caryaensis no account photos no sound/video

Genus Desmognathus (22 species)    [subfamily Plethodontinae]
Desmognathus (Desmognathus) abditus account photos no sound/video
Desmognathus (Desmognathus) apalachicolae account photos no sound/video
Desmognathus (Desmognathus) auriculatus account photos no sound/video
Desmognathus (Desmognathus) carolinensis account photos no sound/video
Desmognathus (Desmognathus) conanti account photos no sound/video
Desmognathus (Desmognathus) fuscus account photos no sound/video
Desmognathus (Desmognathus) imitator account photos no sound/video
Desmognathus (Desmognathus) monticola account photos no sound/video
Desmognathus (Desmognathus) ochrophaeus account photos no sound/video
Desmognathus (Desmognathus) ocoee account photos no sound/video
Desmognathus (Desmognathus) orestes account photos no sound/video
Desmognathus (Desmognathus) planiceps account photos no sound/video
Desmognathus (Desmognathus) santeetlah account photos no sound/video
Desmognathus (Desmognathus) valentinei account photos no sound/video
Desmognathus (Desmognathus) welteri account photos no sound/video
Desmognathus (Geognathus) aeneus account photos no sound/video
Desmognathus (Geognathus) organi account photos no sound/video
Desmognathus (Geognathus) wrighti account photos no sound/video
Desmognathus (Hydrognathus) brimleyorum account photos no sound/video
Desmognathus (Leurognathus) folkertsi account photos no sound/video
Desmognathus (Leurognathus) marmoratus account photos no sound/video
Desmognathus (Leurognathus) quadramaculatus account photos no sound/video

Genus Ensatina (1 species)    [subfamily Plethodontinae]
Ensatina eschscholtzii account photos sound/video

Genus Hydromantes (13 species)    [subfamily Plethodontinae]
Hydromantes (Atylodes) genei account photos no sound/video
Hydromantes (Hydromantes) brunus account photos sound/video
Hydromantes (Hydromantes) platycephalus account photos sound/video
Hydromantes (Hydromantes) samweli account photos no sound/video
Hydromantes (Hydromantes) shastae account photos no sound/video
Hydromantes (Hydromantes) wintu account photos no sound/video
Hydromantes (Speleomantes) ambrosii account photos no sound/video
Hydromantes (Speleomantes) flavus account photos no sound/video
Hydromantes (Speleomantes) imperialis account photos no sound/video
Hydromantes (Speleomantes) italicus account photos no sound/video
Hydromantes (Speleomantes) sarrabusensis no account photos no sound/video
Hydromantes (Speleomantes) strinatii account photos no sound/video
Hydromantes (Speleomantes) supramontis account photos no sound/video

Genus Karsenia (1 species)    [subfamily Plethodontinae]
Karsenia koreana account photos no sound/video

Genus Phaeognathus (1 species)    [subfamily Plethodontinae]
Phaeognathus hubrichti account photos no sound/video

Genus Plethodon (58 species)    [subfamily Plethodontinae]
Plethodon (Hightonia) asupak account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Hightonia) dunni account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Hightonia) elongatus account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Hightonia) idahoensis account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Hightonia) larselli account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Hightonia) neomexicanus account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Hightonia) stormi account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Hightonia) vandykei account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Hightonia) vehiculum account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Plethodon) ainsworthi account no photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Plethodon) albagula account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Plethodon) amplus account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Plethodon) angusticlavius account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Plethodon) aureolus account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Plethodon) caddoensis account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Plethodon) chattahoochee account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Plethodon) cheoah account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Plethodon) chlorobryonis account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Plethodon) cinereus account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Plethodon) cylindraceus account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Plethodon) dixi no account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Plethodon) dorsalis account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Plethodon) electromorphus account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Plethodon) fourchensis account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Plethodon) glutinosus account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Plethodon) grobmani account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Plethodon) hoffmani account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Plethodon) hubrichti account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Plethodon) jacksoni account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Plethodon) jordani account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Plethodon) kentucki account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Plethodon) kiamichi account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Plethodon) kisatchie account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Plethodon) meridianus account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Plethodon) metcalfi account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Plethodon) mississippi account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Plethodon) montanus account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Plethodon) nettingi account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Plethodon) ocmulgee account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Plethodon) ouachitae account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Plethodon) pauleyi no account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Plethodon) petraeus account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Plethodon) punctatus account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Plethodon) richmondi account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Plethodon) savannah account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Plethodon) sequoyah account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Plethodon) serratus account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Plethodon) shenandoah account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Plethodon) sherando account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Plethodon) shermani account photos sound/video
Plethodon (Plethodon) teyahalee account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Plethodon) variolatus account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Plethodon) ventralis account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Plethodon) virginia account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Plethodon) websteri account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Plethodon) wehrlei account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Plethodon) welleri account photos no sound/video
Plethodon (Plethodon) yonahlossee account photos no sound/video


Citation: AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: AmphibiaWeb. Available: https://amphibiaweb.org/. (Accessed:

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