Kamuk Web-footed Salamander
Species Description: Boza-Oviedo E, Rovito SM, Chaves G, Garcia-Rodriguez A, Artavia LG, Bolanos F, Wake DB 2012. Salamanders from the eastern Cordillera de Talamanca, Costa Rica, with descriptions of five new species (Plethodontidae: Bolitoglossa, Nototriton, and Oedipina) and natural history notes from recent expeditions. Zootaxa 3309: 36- 61.
The absence of sublingual fold categorizes B. kamuk as a Bolitoglossa. Bolitoglossa kamuk can be distinguished from other members in the genus based genetics, their smaller and more slender build, and coloration. Additionally, unlike its sister species B. pesrubra, B. kamuk does not have reddish proximal limb segments or dorsal spots or blotches. Bolitoglossa kamuk can also be distinguished from another similar species, B. tica, by its smaller hands and feet (Boza-Oviedo et al. 2012).
In life, there are numerous gold flecks distributed uniformly throughout black dorsum and dorsal hind limbs and tail surface. Gold flecks are numerous up to lateral midline, and less numerous on top of head. The nasolabial protuberances are lightly pigmented. The underside of the body is dark grey with few gold specks on the sides of the body. The underside of limbs and anterior of tail is light grey with a few gold flecks and darker grey posterior tail region (Boza-Oviedo et al. 2012).
The coloration in alcohol preservative consists of heavily pigmented skin glands that causes darkened regions on the head between the snout and eyes. The orbits are completely black and canthus rostralis is covered with numerous black spots on top of dark brown surface. The cream ventral region has numerous black spots concentrated on the anterior region of the body. The dark tail leads to a completely black posterior tip. The hind limbs and forelimbs appear black due to black spots on a dark background surface. The dorsal and ventral regions of hands and feet lighter than limbs and body (Boza-Oviedo et al. 2012).
There appears to be variation in coloration based on developmental stage. The dorsal coloration in the juvenile specimen is orange dorsal with both dark and light grey specks. A darker grey patch spans the top posterior portion of the head to eyes and onto the orbits. The dorsal limbs and tail surface are bright orange, and the tail tip is a darker orange-grey. The gular region is pale yellow-orange gular region (Boza-Oviedo et al. 2012).
Distribution and Habitat
Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Costa Rica
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Parental care is unknown in B. kamuk, but parental care is seen in their sister taxon, B. pesrubra (Vial 1986, Boza-Oviedo et al. 2012) and other members in the genus.
Trends and Threats
The species occur in one protected area: Parque Internacional La Amistad (IUCN 2020).
Possible reasons for amphibian decline
General habitat alteration and loss
Phylogeny of 16S and Cytb mtDNA data for Bolitoglossa in southeastern Costa Rica was constructed using Bayesian analysis. They found B. kamuk was most closely related to B. pesrubra. The next most closely related species was B. bramei, however this relationship is not strongly supported (Boza-Oviedo et al. 2012).
Bolitoglossa kamuk is named after the Kamuk Massif, which in turn is name after one of the dominant mountain peaks of the region they occur in: Cerro Kamuk (Boza-Oviedo et al. 2012).
Boza-Oviedo, E., Rovito, S.M., Chaves, G., Garcia-Rodriguez, A., Artavia, L.G., Bolanos, F., Wake, D.B. (2012). ''Salamanders from the eastern Cordillera de Talamanca, Costa Rica, with descriptions of five new species (Plethodontidae: Bolitoglossa, Nototriton, and Oedipina) and natural history notes from recent expeditions.'' Zootaxa, 3309, 36 - 61.
IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2020. "Bolitoglossa kamuk". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020: e.T50926599A54386141. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T50926599A54386141.en. Downloaded on 19 February 2021.
Vial, J. L. (1968). ''The ecology of the tropical salamander, Bolitoglossa subpalmata, in Costa Rica.'' Revista de Biologia Tropical, 15, 13-115.
Originally submitted by: Mei Chau, Anett Danko, Larissa Landeros (2021-07-20)
Description by: Mei Chau, Anett Danko, Larissa Landeros (updated 2021-07-20)
Distribution by: Mei Chau, Anett Danko, Larissa Landeros (updated 2021-07-20)
Life history by: Mei Chau, Anett Danko, Larissa Landeros (updated 2021-07-20)
Trends and threats by: Mei Chau, Anett Danko, Larissa Landeros (updated 2021-07-20)
Comments by: Mei Chau, Anett Danko, Larissa Landeros (updated 2021-07-20)
Edited by: Ann T. Chang (2021-07-20)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2021 Bolitoglossa kamuk: Kamuk Web-footed Salamander <https://amphibiaweb.org/species/7821> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Sep 19, 2021.
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2021. <https://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 19 Sep 2021.
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