AmphibiaWeb - Megophryidae
AMPHIBIAWEB

Megophryidae

280 species in 12 genera

Commonly Called Asian Horned Frogs, Asian Toads, Asian Toadfrogs, Leaf Litter Frogs


Megophrys (Xenophrys) major
Photo by Nikolai Orlov
(Click for family gallery)

These are the largest, most ecologically and morphologically diverse group of non-neobatrachian frogs in South and Southeast Asia, extending through India, Pakistan, Southeast Asia, Borneo, Philippines, and Sunda Islands. The Megophryidae are generally cryptic frogs, often mimicking dead leaves on the forest floor. For example, Megophrys nasuta, when viewed dorsally, resembles a leaf with its coloration, overall shape, and even leaf-vein looking epidermal growths! These frogs are nocturnal and are poor jumpers, instead preferring to walk around. Tadpoles are aquatic and vary widely in natural history with many buccal adaptations. Megophryids have highly glandular skin with concentrations of glands in the axilla, pectoral and femoral areas.

Notably in 2018, Mahony et al. compiled and analyzed a molecular, morphological, and timetree dated phylogeny for the subfamily Megophryninae, in which they proposed it is comprised of the single genus Megophrys with support for seven subgenera: Megophrys, Atympanophrys, Brachytarsophrys, Ophryophryne, Panophrys, Pelobatrachus, and Xenophrys.

Written by AmphibiaWeb

Notable Family Characteristics

  • Inhabits forest floors or streamsides
  • Terrestrial
  • Nocturnal
  • Eggs are deposited in water to hatch into aquatic tadpoles
  • Morphological characters for this family are: 1) ceratohyals absent in adults; 2) intervertebral cartilages with ossified centers; 3) paddle-shaped tongue; 4) pectoral girdle arciferal with long bony sternum; 5) sacral diapophyses expanded antero-posteriorly; 6) palatines absent, with a palatal process of maxilla instead present in this area. Other features include highly glandular skin with concentrations of glands in the axilla, pectoral and femoral areas
  • Distribution limited to South and Southeast Asia, extending through India, Pakistan, Southeast Asia, Borneo, Philippines, and Sunda Islands.
Megophryidae Richness map

Cartography Credit: Zoe Yoo, UC Berkeley
Range maps sources: AmphibiaWeb, UC Berkeley, and IUCN RedList

Relevant Reference

Chen et al 2018 Large-scale phylogenetic analyses provide insights into unrecognized diversity and historical biogeography of Asian leaf-litter frogs, genus Leptolalax (Anura: Megophryidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 124: 162-171.

Mahony, S, R G. Kamei, E C. Teeling, and S. D. Biju. 2018. Cryptic diversity within the Megophrys major species group (Amphibia: Megophryidae) of the Asian Horned Frogs: Phylogenetic perspectives and a taxonomic revision of South Asian taxa, with descriptions of four new species. Zootaxa, 4523.1 (2018): 1–96

Mahony, S., N. M. Foley, S. D. Biju, and E. C. Teeling. 2017. Evolutionary history of the Asian Horned Frogs (Megophryinae): Integrative approaches to timetree dating in the absence of a fossil record. Molecular Biology and Evolution 34: 744-771.

Pough, F. H., R. M. Andrews, M. L. Crump, A. H. Savitzky, K. D. Wells, and M. C. Brandley. 2015. Herpetology. Fourth Edition. Massachusetts: Sinauer.

Vitt, L. J., and J. P. Caldwell. 2013. Herpetology. An Introductory Biology of Amphibians and Reptiles. Fourth Edition. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Subfamily Leptobrachiinae (165 species)

Genus Leptobrachella (83 species)    [subfamily Leptobrachiinae]
Leptobrachella alpina no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella applebyi account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella arayai no account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella ardens no account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella aspera no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella baluensis no account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella bidoupensis no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella bijie no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella bondangensis no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella botsfordi no account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella bourreti no account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella brevicrus no account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella chishuiensis no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella crocea no account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella dorsospina no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella dringi no account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella feii no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella firthi no account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella flaviglandulosa no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella fritinniens no account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella fuliginosa no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella fusca no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella gracilis no account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella graminicola no account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella hamidi no account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella heteropus no account photos sound/video
Leptobrachella jinshaensis no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella juliandringi no account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella kajangensis no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella kalonensis no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella kecil no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella khasiorum no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella lateralis no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella laui account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella liui no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella macrops no account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella maculosa no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella marmorata no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella maura no account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella melanoleuca no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella melica no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella mjobergi no account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella nahangensis no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella namdongensis no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella natunae no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella neangi account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella niveimontis no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella oshanensis no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella pallida account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella palmata no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella parva no account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella pelodytoides no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella petrops no account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella picta no account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella platycephala no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella pluvialis no account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella purpura no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella purpuraventra no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella pyrrhops no account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella rowleyae no account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella sabahmontana no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella serasanae account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella shangsiensis no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella shiwandashanensis no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella sola no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella suiyangensis no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella sungi account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella tadungensis no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella tamdil no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella tengchongensis no account photos sound/video
Leptobrachella tuberosa no account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella ventripunctata no account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella wuhuangmontis account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella wulingensis no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella yeae no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella yingjiangensis no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella yunkaiensis account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella zhangyapingi no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella (Lalos) aerea no account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella (Lalos) eos no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella (Lalos) maoershanensis no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella (Lalos) minima no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella (Lalos) nyx no account no photos no sound/video

Genus Leptobrachium (38 species)    [subfamily Leptobrachiinae]
Leptobrachium abbotti account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium ailaonicum no account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium banae no account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium bompu account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium boringii no account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium buchardi no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium chapaense no account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium guangxiense no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium gunungense no account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium hainanense no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium hasseltii account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium hendricksoni account photos sound/video
Leptobrachium huashen no account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium ingeri no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium kanowitense no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium kantonishikawai no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium leishanense no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium leucops no account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium liui no account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium lumadorum no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium lunatum no account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium mangyanorum no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium montanum account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium mouhoti no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium ngoclinhense no account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium nigrops no account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium nokrekensis no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium promustache no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium pullum no account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium rakhinense no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium smithi no account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium sylheticum no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium tagbanorum no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium tenasserimense no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium tengchongense no account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium waysepuntiense account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium xanthops no account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium xanthospilum no account photos no sound/video

Genus Leptolalax (1 species)    [subfamily Leptobrachiinae]
Leptolalax mangshanensis no account no photos no sound/video

Genus Oreolalax (19 species)    [subfamily Leptobrachiinae]
Oreolalax chuanbeiensis account no photos no sound/video
Oreolalax granulosus account no photos no sound/video
Oreolalax jingdongensis account no photos no sound/video
Oreolalax liangbeiensis account no photos no sound/video
Oreolalax lichuanensis account no photos no sound/video
Oreolalax longmenmontis no account no photos no sound/video
Oreolalax major account photos no sound/video
Oreolalax multipunctatus account no photos no sound/video
Oreolalax nanjiangensis account no photos no sound/video
Oreolalax omeimontis account no photos no sound/video
Oreolalax pingii account no photos no sound/video
Oreolalax popei account no photos no sound/video
Oreolalax puxiongensis account no photos no sound/video
Oreolalax rhodostigmatus account no photos no sound/video
Oreolalax rugosus account no photos no sound/video
Oreolalax schmidti account no photos no sound/video
Oreolalax sterlingae no account photos no sound/video
Oreolalax weigoldi account no photos no sound/video
Oreolalax xiangchengensis account no photos no sound/video

Genus Scutiger (24 species)    [subfamily Leptobrachiinae]
Scutiger adungensis no account no photos no sound/video
Scutiger bhutanensis no account no photos no sound/video
Scutiger boulengeri no account photos no sound/video
Scutiger brevipes no account no photos no sound/video
Scutiger chintingensis account no photos no sound/video
Scutiger ghunsa no account no photos no sound/video
Scutiger glandulatus no account no photos no sound/video
Scutiger gongshanensis no account no photos no sound/video
Scutiger jiulongensis no account no photos no sound/video
Scutiger liupanensis no account no photos no sound/video
Scutiger maculatus account no photos no sound/video
Scutiger mammatus no account no photos no sound/video
Scutiger muliensis no account no photos no sound/video
Scutiger nepalensis no account no photos no sound/video
Scutiger ningshanensis no account no photos no sound/video
Scutiger nyingchiensis no account no photos no sound/video
Scutiger occidentalis no account photos no sound/video
Scutiger pingwuensis no account no photos no sound/video
Scutiger sikimmensis no account photos no sound/video
Scutiger spinosus no account photos no sound/video
Scutiger tengchongensis no account no photos no sound/video
Scutiger tuberculatus no account no photos no sound/video
Scutiger wanglangensis no account no photos no sound/video
Scutiger wuguanfui no account photos no sound/video
Subfamily Megophryinae (115 species)

Genus Atympanophrys (3 species)    [subfamily Megophryinae]
Atympanophrys gigantica no account photos no sound/video
Atympanophrys nankiangensis no account no photos no sound/video
Atympanophrys shapingensis no account no photos no sound/video

Genus Brachytarsophrys (7 species)    [subfamily Megophryinae]
Brachytarsophrys carinense no account photos no sound/video
Brachytarsophrys chuannanensis no account photos no sound/video
Brachytarsophrys feae no account photos no sound/video
Brachytarsophrys intermedia no account photos no sound/video
Brachytarsophrys orientalis no account no photos no sound/video
Brachytarsophrys platyparietus no account no photos no sound/video
Brachytarsophrys popei no account no photos no sound/video

Genus Megophrys (6 species)    [subfamily Megophryinae]
Megophrys (Megophrys) lancip no account no photos no sound/video
Megophrys (Megophrys) montana account photos no sound/video
Megophrys (Megophrys) parallela no account no photos no sound/video
Megophrys (Xenophrys) awuh no account no photos no sound/video
Megophrys (Xenophrys) dzukou no account no photos no sound/video
Megophrys (Xenophrys) numhbumaeng no account no photos no sound/video

Genus Ophryophryne (6 species)    [subfamily Megophryinae]
Ophryophryne elfina no account no photos no sound/video
Ophryophryne gerti no account no photos no sound/video
Ophryophryne hansi no account photos no sound/video
Ophryophryne koui no account photos no sound/video
Ophryophryne microstoma no account photos no sound/video
Ophryophryne synoria no account photos no sound/video

Genus Panophrys (59 species)    [subfamily Megophryinae]
Panophrys acuta no account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys angka no account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys anlongensis no account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys baishanzuensis no account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys baolongensis no account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys binchuanensis no account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys binlingensis no account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys boettgeri no account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys brachykolos no account photos no sound/video
Panophrys caobangensis no account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys caudoprocta no account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys cheni no account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys chishuiensis no account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys congjiangensis no account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys daiyunensis no account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys daoji no account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys daweimontis no account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys dongguanensis no account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys fansipanensis no account photos no sound/video
Panophrys frigida no account photos no sound/video
Panophrys hoanglienensis no account photos no sound/video
Panophrys huangshanensis no account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys insularis no account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys jiangi no account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys jingdongensis no account photos no sound/video
Panophrys jinggangensis no account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys jiulianensis no account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys kuatunensis no account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys leishanensis no account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys liboensis no account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys lini no account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys lishuiensis no account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys lushuiensis no account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys minor no account photos no sound/video
Panophrys mirabilis no account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys mufumontana no account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys nankunensis no account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys nanlingensis no account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys obesa no account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys ombrophila no account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys omeimontis no account photos no sound/video
Panophrys palpebralespinosa no account photos no sound/video
Panophrys qianbeiensis no account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys rubrimera no account photos no sound/video
Panophrys sangzhiensis no account photos no sound/video
Panophrys sanmingensis no account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys shimentaina no account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys shuichengensis no account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys shunhuangensis no account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys spinata no account photos no sound/video
Panophrys tongboensis no account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys tuberogranulatus account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys wawuensis no account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys wugongensis no account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys wuliangshanensis no account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys wushanensis no account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys xiangnanensis no account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys xianjuensis no account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys yangmingensis no account no photos no sound/video

Genus Pelobatrachus (7 species)    [subfamily Megophryinae]
Pelobatrachus baluensis no account photos no sound/video
Pelobatrachus edwardinae no account photos no sound/video
Pelobatrachus kalimantanensis no account no photos no sound/video
Pelobatrachus kobayashii no account photos no sound/video
Pelobatrachus ligayae account photos no sound/video
Pelobatrachus nasuta no account photos no sound/video
Pelobatrachus stejnegeri no account photos no sound/video

Genus Xenophrys (27 species)    [subfamily Megophryinae]
Xenophrys aceras no account photos no sound/video
Xenophrys ancrae no account photos no sound/video
Xenophrys auralensis account no photos no sound/video
Xenophrys damrei no account no photos no sound/video
Xenophrys dringi no account photos no sound/video
Xenophrys feii no account no photos no sound/video
Xenophrys flavipunctata no account no photos no sound/video
Xenophrys glandulosa no account no photos no sound/video
Xenophrys himalayana no account no photos no sound/video
Xenophrys lekaguli no account no photos no sound/video
Xenophrys longipes no account photos no sound/video
Xenophrys major no account photos no sound/video
Xenophrys mangshanensis no account no photos no sound/video
Xenophrys medogensis no account no photos no sound/video
Xenophrys megacephala no account no photos no sound/video
Xenophrys monticola no account no photos no sound/video
Xenophrys oreocrypta no account no photos no sound/video
Xenophrys oropedion no account no photos no sound/video
Xenophrys pachyproctus no account no photos no sound/video
Xenophrys parva no account no photos no sound/video
Xenophrys periosa no account no photos no sound/video
Xenophrys robusta no account no photos no sound/video
Xenophrys serchhipii no account no photos no sound/video
Xenophrys takensis no account no photos no sound/video
Xenophrys vegrandis no account photos no sound/video
Xenophrys zhangi no account no photos no sound/video
Xenophrys zunhebotoensis no account no photos no sound/video


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