Ophryophryne synoria
family: Megophryidae
Species Description: Stuart, B.L., K.Sok, and T.Neang. 2006. A collection of Amphibians and Reptiles from Hilly Eastern Cambodia. The Raffles Bull. of Zoology (54:1)129-155.
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Vulnerable (VU)
Other International Status None
National Status None
Regional Status None

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Cambodia


View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.


From the IUCN Red List Species Account:


Range Description

This species is known only from 500-604 m asl in Seima Biodiversity Conservation Area in Mondolkiri Province, eastern Cambodia (Stuart et al. 2006). These are unlikely to represent the actual limits of the species' range as similar habitat and elevations to those in its known localities occur in adjacent parts of eastern Cambodia and southern-central Viet Nam. Further surveys in these areas are likely to uncover its presence there, therefore its range has been projected beyond known sites to include these areas of suitable habitat. This species' extent of occurrence (EOO) is 17,307 km2, which consists of seven threat-defined locations.

Habitat and Ecology

This species is associated with hilly mixed and evergreen forest and has been observed around small, swiftly flowing streams on rocks, vegetation and the stream banks (Stuart et al. 2006, J. Rowley unpubl. data). The reproductive biology of this species is not known, but it presumably breeds in streams by larval development, as do other Ophryophryne for which the reproductive strategy is known. The species has been observed calling in July, so breeding probably occurs around this time (J. Rowley pers. comm. October 2015).


Little is known about the size of this species' population, however it is described as having been relatively common in Seima Biodiversity Conservation Area in 2009 (J. Rowley pers. comm. October 2015). It has been detected in a number of surveys (e.g. Stuart et al. 2006, J. Rowley unpubl. data). The species' population trends are unknown, however deforestation continues to affect areas surrounding its predicted range (Meyfroidt and Lambin 2008, Sodhi et al. 2009, Meyfroidt et al. 2013) and is likely causing declines. Surveys are needed to determine its relative abundance and population trends.

Population Trend


Major Threats

Forest loss and degradation due to the effects of rapidly expanding agriculture is an ongoing threat to biodiversity throughout Cambodia (Sodhi et al. 2009), as well as this species' range in Viet Nam (Meyfroidt and Lambin 2008, Meyfroidt et al. 2013) and recent satellite imagery shows areas of land cleared for agriculture in parts of this species' range. The species is very likely threatened by encroaching agriculture. The species is also threatened by logging throughout much of its range in Cambodia (Stuart et al. 2006).

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species is known from the Seima Biodiversity Conservation Area (Stuart et al. 2006). Other protected areas are also included in the species’ predicted range. 

Conservation Needed
Increased protection of the species' localities and habitat may also be needed in order to mitigate declines.

Research Needed
Addressing the lack of data is necessary for ensuring this species' long-term persistence; further research on its true distribution, ecology, threats, and the size and trends of its population would inform conservation decisions.

Red List Status

Vulnerable (VU)


Listed as Vulnerable as this species' extent of occurrence (EOO) is only 17,307 km2, it occurs in seven threat-defined locations, and there is a continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat.


IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2016. Ophryophryne synoria. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T136181A85538901. .Downloaded on 22 January 2019


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