This species occurs in the central Panama lowlands eastwards to San Blas, below 800 m asl, and through the Pacific lowlands of Colombia to northwestern Ecuador. It is also found on Gorgona Island in Colombia. It occurs here at very low altitude, many specimens being collected at 70–90 m asl.
Habitat and Ecology
This species lives on the ground, and on bushy vegetation, logs and rocks in humid tropical lowland forest. It does not survive in degraded areas, but is found on forest edges. It breeds by direct development and is not dependent upon water.
It is a common species in Colombia, but is very rare and poorly known in Ecuador (D. Cisneros-Heredia pers. comm. September 2017). It is generally somewhat uncommon but is not rare in Panama. Due to ongoing decline in the extent and quality of the habitat, the population is suspected to be decreasing.
The major threats are deforestation for agricultural development, illegal crops, logging and human settlement, and pollution resulting from the spraying of illegal crops. The northern Chocoan forests in Ecuador, where this species is found, are under severe pressure from habitat loss and fragmentation (D. Cisneros-Heredia pers. comm. September 2017).
This species occurs in several protected areas throughout its range. In Panama it occurs in the following protected areas: Cerro Campana National Park; Soberania National Park; Chagres National Park; and Isla Barro del Colorado National Monument.
Red List Status
Least Concern (LC)
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution and its presumed large population.
This form is a complex consisting of several species (D. Wake pers. comm.).
IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2018. Oedipina complex. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T59310A54354769. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-1.RLTS.T59310A54354769.en .Downloaded on 18 November 2018