Eurycea bislineata (Green, 1818)
Northern Two-lined Salamander
© 2006 Michael Benard (1 of 32)
Distribution and Habitat
Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Canada, United States
U.S. state distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Connecticut, District of Columbia, Delaware, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Virginia, Vermont, West Virginia
Canadian province distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Ontario, Quebec
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Eggs: Females lay unpigmented or white to pale yellow eggs with a diameter of 2.5-3 mm. Clutch size positively correlates with size of female. Two envelopes surround the eggs; the outer one is drawn out to form an attachment disk (Bishop 1943). Sometimes in the same place as others, a female attaches eggs singly to lower surface of a support in running, but rarely stagnant water. Ovipositional sites usually attended by at least one adult through hatching. Incubation period is about 4-10 weeks, depending on temperature of water (Petranka 1998).
Larvae: In an aquatic environment, hatch with yolk reserves and most likely do not start feeding until yolk is mostly resorbed. Often live in the slow moving pools of streams; rarely in fast currents unless drifting. Mostly benthic feeders, hunting stream bottoms or over rocks for prey such as isopods, amphipods, chironomid larvae, and zooplankton. Larval period length is about 2-3 years; tends to be longer in northern than southern populations (Petranka 1998).
Defense: Adults will actively defend home shelters by aggressive posturing or biting. Predators include owls, snakes, and fish. Most E. bislineata become immobile when contacted by snakes but will engage in protean flipping and flight when contacted by the snake's tongue. The decision to stay or flee depends on the individual's physical abilities. Can also autotomize the tail when attacked by snakes (Petranka 1998).
Trends and Threats
Bishop, S.C. (1943). Handbook of Salamanders. Comstock Publishing Company, Inc., Ithaca, New York.
Petranka, J. W. (1998). Salamanders of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. and London.
Originally submitted by: Chih Wang (first posted 2001-05-07)
Edited by: Tate Tunstall, Kevin Gin (12/03) (2003-12-04)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2003 Eurycea bislineata: Northern Two-lined Salamander <https://amphibiaweb.org/species/4049> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Dec 7, 2022.
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2022. <https://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 7 Dec 2022.
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