Snout-vent length ranges from 40 to 47 mm in males and 45 to 49 mm in females. Dorsal coloration is composed of yellow blotches with green central areas, separated by thin black reticulations. The ventral surface is white. Vocal sac is greyish black in mature males. The dorsal surface is covered with low, black-tipped warts. Larger warts are found along the sides of the body. Ventrally they are covered with small, dark-tipped granules. Paratoid glands are large but inconspicuous. Warts on the paratoid are greatly reduced and tipped with black.
Distribution and Habitat
Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Mexico, United States
U.S. state distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Arizona
Restricted to southern Arizona and Sonora, Mexico, north of Guaymas. This species is found most commonly in open, rolling, mesquite-grassland between 500 and 1500 ft in elevation. Its range extends into the Pacific Coastal Plain of Mexico only in the vicinity of Hermosillo, possibly as a result of increased well drilling and irrigation.
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Anaxyrus retiformis eggs are yellow with a band of melanin, and are about 1.15 mm in diameter. Tadpoles hatch at a later stage than most bufonids.
Calls are made from clumps of grass usually within three feet of the water's edge. Calls are wheezy sounding and generally last 1 to 3 sec.
Trends and Threats
Habitat manipulation due to agriculture has resulted in A. retiformis replacing A. kelloggi to the south and west of Hermosillo.
Possible reasons for amphibian decline
General habitat alteration and loss
Hulse, A. C. (1963). ''Bufo retiformis.'' Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, 207.1-207.2.
Originally submitted by: April Robinson (first posted 2001-01-31)
Edited by: Kellie Whittaker (2012-08-15)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2012 Anaxyrus retiformis: Sonoran Green Toad <https://amphibiaweb.org/species/269> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Jun 10, 2023.
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2023. <https://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 10 Jun 2023.
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