AmphibiaWeb - Adenomus kelaartii


(Translations may not be accurate.)

Adenomus kelaartii (Günther, 1858)
Kelaart`s Dwarf Toad
family: Bufonidae
genus: Adenomus
Adenomus kelaartii
© 2005 Dr. Peter Janzen (1 of 13)
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN Red List Status Account Vulnerable (VU)
National Status vulnerable
Regional Status None
conservation needs Access Conservation Needs Assessment Report .


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Snouth-vent length of mature males 25-33 mm, female 36-50 mm, body covered with smooth or spinous warts. Colouration is light to deep brown dorally and the venter is pale yellow to white, marbled with brown. Sometimes with very small red or red and blue dots.

Distribution and Habitat

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Sri Lanka

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Terra Typica: Ceylon.

This species is endemic to Sri Lanka where it is found in the wet zone, specially in the remaining parts of the rainforests: Kanneliya, Sinharaja, Peak Wilderness, Kitulgala up to 1230m NN (Dutta and Manamendra 1996; Manamendra and Pethiyagoda 1998). Adenomus kelaartii lives in the leaf litter near near streams. Sometimes it can be found on sand banks at river sites. Females climb up tree to heights of 15 m (Dutta and Manamendra 1998); the author of this account found one in a tree hole two meters above the ground.

Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Adenomus kelaartii is active during day and night but it is easier found in the darkness mostly next to streams. Males were observed calling from mid-stream boulders at night. Females lay up to 1000 unpigmented eggs in a single row up to 7 cm. The larvae is first unpigmented, then the dorsal color changes into grey. Stage 25 larvae have a size of 6-9 mm. Later, the dorsal color changes into dark brown. Metamorphosis is complete after 49 days (temperature between 20° C and 23° C) and the young frogs leaves the water with a body length of 8-9 mm (Haas et al 1997).

Trends and Threats
There is not much information available for A. kelaartii. If habitat is protected, the survival of the species may be secure.

Possible reasons for amphibian decline

Habitat modification from deforestation, or logging related activities
Habitat fragmentation
Local pesticides, fertilizers, and pollutants


Dutta, S.K. and Manamendra-Arachchi, K. (1996). The Amphibian Fauna of Sri Lanka. Wildlife Heritage Trust of Sri Lanka, Colombo, Sri Lanka.

Haas, W., Lehr, E., and Köhler, G. (1997). ''The tadpole of Bufo kelaartii Günther 1859 from Sri Lanka.'' Lyriocephalus, 3(2), 2-6.

Manamendra-Arachchi, K., and Pethiyagoda, R. (1998). ''A synopsis of the Sri Lankan Bufonidae (Amphibia: Anura), with description of two new species.'' Journal of South Asian Natural History, 3(2), 213-248.

Originally submitted by: Peter Janzen (first posted 2005-04-25)
Edited by: Tate Tunstall (2005-04-27)

Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2005 Adenomus kelaartii: Kelaart`s Dwarf Toad <> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Jun 17, 2024.

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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2024. <> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 17 Jun 2024.

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