AmphibiaWeb - Bufo luchunnicus
Bufo luchunnicus (Yang & Rao, 2008)
Luchun Stream Toad
family: Bufonidae
genus: Bufo
Species Description: Yang D 2008 in Yang D Rao D (eds.) Amphibia and Reptilia of Yunnan: 57, under the original name Torrentophryne luchunnica.

AmphibiaChina 中国两栖类.

Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN Red List Status Account Critically Endangered (CR)
National Status None
Regional Status None



View distribution map in BerkeleyMapper.


Bufo luchunnicus is a medium-sized toad with a snout-vent length of 55.4 - 59.2 mm. The head is wider than it is long, having a width of 17.9 - 20.5 mm and a length of 17.1 - 18.7 mm. The snout is short, protruding obtusely in the profile view. The loreal region is flat and sloping, and the canthus rostralis is distinct. The pupil is horizontally oval-shaped. The eye diameter (6.1 - 6.5 mm) is slightly shorter than the snout (6.5 - 7.1 mm). The upper eyelids are 4.4 - 4.5 mm wide. The interorbital distance (6.0 - 6.4 mm) is greater than the internarial distance (4.3 - 4.4 mm). The parotoid gland is elongated and distinct while the tympanum is indistinct. The forelimbs are robust. The upper arm length is 16.8 - 18.1 mm, which is shorter than the forearm length (30.7 - 33.5 mm). The relative finger lengths are II < I = IV < III and there is no webbing. The fingertips are round and do not have discs or dermal fringes. There are subarticular tubercles (formula 1, 1, 2, 2) and prominent, round palmar tubercles are present. The inner metatarsal tubercle is oval and an outer metatarsal tubercle is absent. A nuptial pad on finger I, composed of small spines, is present. The hind limbs are short, with the thigh (27.5 - 28.7 mm) being longer than the tibia (27.1 - 27.2 mm). The toe tips are round and lack discs, like the fingers. The relative toe lengths are I < II < III < V < IV and webbing is present (formula I 1/4 – 3/4 II 1/4 – 1 III 1/2 – 1 1/2 IV 1 1/2 – 0V). Subarticular tubercles are present and the inner metatarsal tubercle is long. The outer metatarsal tubercle is small. The dorsal surface of the body and flanks is covered with blunt warts, with tubercles also covering the dorsal surfaces of the forelimbs and bigger warts on the dorsal surfaces of the hind limbs (Pham et al. 2019).

Bufo luchunnicus bears morphological similarity to B. cryptotympanicus, but B. luchunnicus is smaller (male snout-vent length of 55 - 61 mm compared to 65 - 77 mm in B. cryptotympanicus). The relative finger lengths and webbing are also different, with relative finger lengths being II < I = IV < III in B. luchunnicus and I = II < IV < III in B. cryptotympanicus, and webbing being I 1/4 – 3/4 II 1/4 – 1 III 1/2 – 1 1/2 IV 1 1/2 – 0V in B. luchunnicus and I 1/2 – 1 II 1/2 – 1 III 1 – 2 IV 2 – 1 V in B. cryptotympanicus (Pham et al. 2019).

In life, the dorsum is brown with darker spots, including on the dorsal surfaces of the fore- and hind limbs. The parotoid gland is black on the sides. The flanks are grey-black, having white markings. The ventrum is brown with yellow markings. The nuptial pad is brown (Pham et al. 2019).

Distribution and Habitat

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: China, Viet Nam


View distribution map in BerkeleyMapper.
The species is known to occupy the Huangliangshan Mountain, Yunnan, China at elevations around 1650 m as well as the Lao Cai and Son La provinces in Vietnam at elevations of 1726 - 1785 m. These habitats are montane forest regions that form the border region between China and Vietnam and are known to have high levels of species diversity (Pham et al. 2019, IUCN 2020). The species belongs to a group of toads associated with forest streams (IUCN 2020).

Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Not much is known about the life history of B. luchunnicus, but it is thought to breed in streams (IUCN 2020).

Trends and Threats
Bufo luchinnicus is considered "Critically Endangered". Changes to the habitat caused by agriculture, aquaculture, water management, and urban development place stress on the habitats that B. luchunnicus occupies. The species does not occur in any protected areas, and the species is thought to be unable to adapt well to habitat disturbances (IUCN 2019).

Relation to Humans
There are no known uses of B. luchunnicus by humans (IUCN 2020).

Possible reasons for amphibian decline

General habitat alteration and loss
Intensified agriculture or grazing


The species epithet, "luchunnicus", comes from its type locality of Lüchun County, Yunnan Province, China.


IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. (2020). "Bufo luchunnicus." The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020: e.T49328174A49328178. Accessed on 21 February 2023.

Pham, C.T., Le, M.D., Hoang, C.V., Pham, A.V., Ziegler, T., Nguyen, T.Q. (2019). "First records of Bufo luchunnicus (Yang et Rao, 2008) and Amolops wenshanensis Yuan, Jin, Stuart et Wu, 2018 (Anura: Bufonidae, Ranidae) from Vietnam." Russian Journal of Herpetology, 27(2), 81-86. [link]

Originally submitted by: Madeline Ahn (2023-03-01)
Description by: Madeline Ahn (updated 2023-03-01)
Distribution by: Madeline Ahn (updated 2023-03-01)
Life history by: Madeline Ahn (updated 2023-03-01)
Trends and threats by: Madeline Ahn (updated 2023-03-01)
Relation to humans by: Madeline Ahn (updated 2023-03-01)
Comments by: Madeline Ahn (updated 2023-03-01)

Edited by: Ann T. Chang (2023-03-23)

Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2023 Bufo luchunnicus: Luchun Stream Toad <> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Apr 2, 2023.

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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2023. <> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 2 Apr 2023.

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