Nectophrynoides paulae
family: Bufonidae
Species Description: Menegon, Salvidio, Ngalason & Loader,2007 A new dwarf forest toad (Amphibia: Bufonidae: Nectophrynoides) from the Ukaguru Mountains, Tanzania. Zootaxa 1541: 31-40
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Critically Endangered (CR)
Other International Status None
National Status None
Regional Status None

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Tanzania, United Republic of



View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.

From the IUCN Red List Species Account:


Range Description

This species is only known from one site in the Mamiwa-Kisara North Forest Reserve in the Ukaguru Mountains in eastern Tanzania, where it occurs at around 1,800 m asl. Surveys between 2011-2012 in Mamiwa-Kisara South Forest Reserve and Mikuvi Forest Reserve failed to detect the species (S. Loader pers. comm. December 2014). It is probably endemic to the Ukaguru Mountains. Its extent of occurrence (EOO) is estimated to be 18 km².

Habitat and Ecology

All individuals have been found in montane forest in a valley dominated by the tree fern Cyathea manniana. The animals were found on vegetation up to 1.3 m from the ground during rainy evenings along a stream and close to standing water. In terms of microhabitat selection, it was most often found on small trees, shrubs or bushes, with males calling from exposed sites. Presumably it is a live-bearing species, like other members of its genus.


There is little information on its abundance. Ten specimens were collected on its discovery. A survey at this site in 2007 did not find any individuals (CEPF, Frontier Tanzania; M. Menegon pers. comm. June 2012). However, due to ongoing decline in the quality and extent of its habitat, the species' population is presumed to be decreasing.

Population Trend


Major Threats

The forests in the Ukaguru Mountains are poorly protected, and are threatened by agricultural encroachment and human settlement.

Conservation Actions

It occurs in the Mamiwa-Kisara North Forest Reserve. Additional protection is needed for the forests in the Ukaguru Mountains. Further research is needed on the species' population size, distribution and trends. It is listed on CITES Appendix I.

Red List Status

Critically Endangered (CR)


This species is listed as Critically Endangered because its extent of occurrence (EOO) is limited to 18 km², all individuals occur in a single threat-defined location, and there is continuing decline in the quality of its habitat in the Ukaguru Mountains.


IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2015. Nectophrynoides paulae. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T136007A13322840. .Downloaded on 18 February 2019


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