© 2001 Germano Woehl Jr. (1 of 13)
The tadpole's body is ovoid in dorsal view, and slightly depressed in lateral view. The eyes are dorsal and oriented dorsolaterally. The nares are oval with a small marginal rim, dorsally positioned, located closer to the eyes than the tip of the snout, directed upward. A single sinistral spiracle, directed posterodorsally, with inner wall present as a slight ridge. The vent tube is short, dextral, with right wall displaced dorsally. The dorsal fin originates at the body–tail junction and is widely arched and higher than the ventral fin. The oral disc is ventral, and laterally emarginated. The marginal papillae are conical, disposed in a single row laterally, alternated posteriorly, with a wide anterior gap, which is slightly shorter than A-1. LTRF 2(2)/3(1). Anterior jaw sheath widely arched, posterior jaw sheath V-shaped and curved inward. In formalin, the body wall is transparent in dorsal view, with small, scattered light-gray melanophores along the body. Broad transverse stripes on the caudal musculature in dorsal view (Provete et al. 2013). Provete et al. (2013) thoroughly described the larval internal oral features of this species and compared it with P. moratoi and P. cururu.
Distribution and Habitat
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
The advertisement call consists of a multipulsed (12‑41 pulses) note with a mean duration of 0.39 s, emitted sporadically, and a dominant frequency around 1179 Hz. (Mângia et al. 2010).
There is a report of defensive behavior, in which one specimen flattened its body and stretched out its legs (Moura et al. 2010).
Trends and Threats
Possible reasons for amphibian decline
General habitat alteration and loss
Amaro, R. C., Pavan, D., and Rodrigues, M. T. (2009). ''On the generic identity of Odontophrynus moratoi Jim & Caramaschi, 1980 (Anura, Cycloramphidae) .'' Zootaxa, 2071, 61-68.
Heyer, W. R., Rand, A. S., Cruz, C. A. G., Peixoto, O. L., and Nelson, C. E. (1990). ''Frogs of Boracéia.'' Arquivos de Zoologia Sao Paulo, 31, 231-410.
Izecksohn, E., Carvalho-e-Silva, S. P. and Deiss, I. (2005). ''O osteocrânio de Proceratophrys boiei (Wied-Neuwied), P. appendiculata (Günther), P. melanopogon (Miranda-Ribeiro) e P. laticeps Izecksohn & Peixoto (Anura, Leptodactylidae).'' Revista Brasileira de Zoologia, 22, 225–229.
Izecksohn, E., and Peixoto, O.L. (1981). ''Nova espécie de Proceratophrys da hiléia Bahiana, Brasil (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae).'' Brazilian Journal of Biology, 41, 19–24.
Moura, M. R., Santana, D.J., Mangia, S., and Feio, R.N. (2010). ''Proceratophrys melanopogon (Black-bearded Horned Leaf Toad). Defensive behavior.'' Herpetology review, 41(4), 479.
Mângia, S., Santana, D.J. & Feio, R.N. (2010). ''Advertisement call of the Cycloramphid Toad Proceratophrys melanopogon (Miranda-Ribeiro, 1926).'' South American Journal of Herpetology, 5, 127–131.
Prado, G. M., and Pombal, J. P. (2008). ''Espécies de Proceratophrys Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920 com apêndices palpebrais (Anura; Cycloramphidae).'' Arquivos de Zoologia, 39, 1-85.
Provete, D. B., Melo, L. S. O., Garey,M. V., Gomes, F. B. R., Martins, I. A., and Rossa-Feres, D. C. (2013). ''Larvae of Proceratophrys melanopogon (Amphibia: Anura), with Emphasis on Internal Oral Morphology and Comparisons with P. Cururu and P. Moratoi.'' Herpetologica,, 69(2), 163-174.
Siqueira, C. C. et al. (2011). ''Anurans from two high-elevation areas of Atlantic Forest in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.'' Zoologia, 28(4 ), 457-464.
Zaher, H., Aguiar, E., and Pombal JR., J. P. (2005). ''Paratelmatobius gaigeae (Cochran, 1938) re-discovered (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae).'' Arquivos do Museu Nacional, 62(2), 321-328.
Written by Diogo B. Provete (dbprovete AT gmail.com), Universidade Federal de Goiás
First submitted 2013-12-07
Edited by Michelle S. Koo (2014-02-18)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2014 Proceratophrys melanopogon: Horned Frog <http://amphibiaweb.org/species/6013> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Nov 12, 2018.
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2018. <http://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 12 Nov 2018.
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