Pelophryne api
family: Bufonidae

© 2009 Maximilian Dehling (1 of 2)

Frogs of Borneo account.

Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Endangered (EN)
Other International Status None
National Status None
Regional Status None

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Malaysia


View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.


From the IUCN Red List Species Account:


Range Description

This species is endemic to Borneo, where it is currently known only from its type locality of Gunung Mulu National Park in northern Sarawak, Malaysia. It might occur slightly more widely. It has an elevational range of 65–1,200 m asl and its estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) is 675 km2.

Habitat and Ecology

All known specimens have been found in primary lowland and montane rainforest in limestone karst areas. The larvae are endotrophic and occur in small pools on the forest floor.


This species is abundant and common in suitable habitat (I. Das pers. comm. March 2018), and the population is considered to be stable.

Population Trend


Major Threats

This species is only known from Gunung Mulu National Park, where its habitat is well protected and not threatened at present (Y.M. Pui and I. Das pers. comm. March 2018).

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species occurs in Gunung Mulu National Park. This 52,000-ha park is the most studied tropical karst area in the world and is well protected. 

Conservation Needed
Continued management of Gunung Mulu National Park is necessary for the conservation of this species (Y.M. Pui and I. Das pers. comm. March 2018). 

Research Needed
Further survey work is required to determine the current population status of the species at this locality, and whether it might be present in other karst areas of Borneo.

Red List Status

Endangered (EN)


Listed as Least Concern because, although this species' current known distribution is limited, it occurs only within a well-protected national park where there are currently no threats.


IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2018. Pelophryne api. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T54865A123691713. .Downloaded on 23 January 2019


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