A faint triangular mark is present between the eyes. The tibiotarsal articulation extends as far forward as the corner of the eye. The tips of the fingers and toes are rounded. The long toes are fringed and have rudimentary webbing(Fei 1999).
The sides of the body are lighter in color than the back, with black spots decreasing in size ventrally. The hind legs are about 1.6 times the body length, and the heels overlap when they are flexed. Both the axilla and the back of the thigh have a light glandular spot. The backs of the limbs have irregular dark markings.
The ventrum is smooth and grayish(Wu et. al 1993) with little or no spotting.
The edge of the lips has black-brown horizontal stripes that are relatively distinct (Fei 1999). The male has black nuptial spines, positioned in three longitudinal rows, on the first and second finger.
In addition, the edges of the jaws have small black spines (Wu et. al 1993). A relatively long chest gland, also possessing black spines, is positioned sideways on either side of the chest.
The spines on the finger are large and thick and about two times the size of the spines on the chest. No vocal sac is present (Fei 1999). Eggs are 3.5 mm in diameter, milky white, and attached to the undersides of submerged rocks. The tadpoles are 65 mm in total body length and about 28 mm in head length.
The back is brown and the tail muscle is a light yellowish brown with black-brown colored spots of varying sizes (Fei 1999). The lips are fringed with short, thick papillae, with pigmentation on their bases or extending to their tips. The median gap in papillae on the upper lip is about twice the width of the flanking papillae.
The lower lip usually has two rows of compressed inframarginal papillae, most of which have small labial teeth (Wu et. al 1993).
The male body length is about 48 mm. The pupil is vertical. The tympanum is hidden. The maxillary teeth are developed(Fei 1999).
The dorsum is relatively smooth(Wu et. al 1993) and yellowish brown with many, evenly scattered black spots. The head and the dorsal sides of the limbs are full of tubercles.
Distribution and Habitat
Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: China
O. multipunctatas occurs in only two locations in Emei and Hongya county in the central Sichuan province, where it is only rarely found. It is currently only listed as Vulnerable because the species is probably more widely distributed. It lives at an altitude of 1520 to 1920 meters above sea level(IUCN 2004)
in dense forest, mountain streams and their surroundings(Fei 1999).
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Spawning season occurs from middle to the end of May. During this time the adult males will lie on top of the submerged rocks, protecting the eggs underneath. Meanwhile, after spawning, the adult females live both in and out of the water. The tadpoles live in relatively deep water, with some living under fallen leaves at the bottoms of the streams(Fei 1999).
Trends and Threats
The major threat to O. multipunctatas is habitat destruction and degradation, especially due to its restricted range and fragmented distribution. Tourism in the area is also an increasing threat(IUCN, 2004).
Possible reasons for amphibian decline
General habitat alteration and loss
Intentional mortality (over-harvesting, pet trade or collecting)
Fei, L. (1999). Atlas of Amphibians of China. Henan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Zhengzhou.
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. < www.globalamphibians.org >. Accessed on 28 November 2006.
Wu, G. F., Zhao, E.M., Inger R. F., and Shaffer H. B. (1993). ''A new frog from the genus Oreolalax (Pelobatidae) from Sichuan, China.'' Journal of Herpetology, 27(4), 410-413.
Written by Sijie Mao (smao AT berkeley.edu), URAP
First submitted 2006-11-30
Edited by Tate Tunstall (2008-02-03)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2008 Oreolalax multipunctatus: Spotted Toothed Toad <http://amphibiaweb.org/species/5311> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Nov 15, 2018.
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2018. <http://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 15 Nov 2018.
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