This widespread species is known from 100–2,000 m Asl throughout much of Thailand (Andersson 1916, Boulenger 1916, Taylor 1962, Chan-ard 2003), northeastern Lao PDR (Stuart 2005), southwestern Cambodia (Ohler et al. 2002, Grismer et al. 2008) and central Viet Nam (Luu et al. 2014). Similar habitat and elevations to those in its known localities extend into adjacent parts of northern Cambodia, intervening southern and central Lao PDR, and eastern Myanmar; and further surveys may uncover its presence there. Therefore its range has been projected beyond known sites to include these areas of suitable habitat. The species' estimated EOO is 721,471 km2, which represents eight threat defined locations.
Habitat and Ecology
This species is associated with hilly and montane evergreen, evergreen mixed with bamboo, and deciduous forest (Taylor 1962, Stuart 2005, Luu et al. 2014). It has mostly been observed in or adjacent to streams, however has also been recorded as dispersed throughout the forest (Ohler et al. 2002). Very little is known about this species' reproductive biology, however it presumably deposits eggs in streams and has a free-living larval stage as do most of its congeners. Much of the forest in Southeast Asia has been converted to agricultural land (Sodhi et al. 2009) and recent satellite imagery confirms that land cleared for agriculture comprises parts of this species' predicted range.
There are no estimates on the size of this species' population, however it has been detected in a number of surveys (Andersson 1916, Boulenger 1916, Taylor 1962, Ohler et al. 2002, Chan-ard 2003, Stuart 2005, Grismer et al. 2008, Luu et al. 2014), and has been described as "not uncommon" in northern Thailand (Taylor 1962). By comparison, only one individual has been detected in a survey in Viet Nam (Luu et al. 2014). The species' population trends are unknown, and further surveys are warranted to determine these and its relative abundance. Deforestation continues to affect habitat in the species' range, and is very likely causing declines.
There have been no threats reported as affecting this species; however forest loss is ongoing throughout its range, with forests being replaced with agricultural land. The degree to which habitat conversion is threatening the species is unclear, and may be determined by further investigation. Due to its large body size, this species is harvested by local people for food and medicinal purposes (A. Ohler pers. comm. March 2012), however harvest rates are not known and this may not severely affect the species' population.
This species is known from Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park in Viet Nam (Luu et al. 2014) and Phnom Samkos Wildlife Sanctuary in Cambodia (Grismer et al. 2008). A large number of other protected areas are included in its predicted range; it very likely occurs in some of these also.
Addressing the lack of data is the first step towards ensuring this species' long-term persistence; further research on its true distribution, life history, threats, rates of harvest, and the size and trends of its population would inform conservation decisions.
Red List Status
Least Concern (LC)
Listed as Least Concern as this species is relatively widespread, with an estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) of 721,471 km2.
IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2017. Limnonectes gyldenstolpei. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T58337A113957997. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-2.RLTS.T58337A113957997.en .Downloaded on 22 January 2019