This species is found throughout western to northern Borneo and from only two localities on Palawan Island (including the type locality) in the Philippines. On Borneo, it has been recorded throughout much of Sabah and Sarawak (Malaysia), Brunei, and West, Central, and East Kalimantan provinces. It probably occurs more widely than current records suggest, especially in areas between known sites. Most often it is found in the lowlands, but it has been recorded from 100–1,500 m asl.
Habitat and Ecology
This species inhabits undisturbed and disturbed streams and rivers in lower montane and lowland primary forests. It wanders through the forest and is confined to the floor stratum. Males have a distinctive advertisement call to attract females, but do so very infrequently from widely spaced sites on the forest floor (Goyes Vallejos 2017). Females not only respond to male advertisement calls, but also vocalize spontaneously, forming lek-like aggregations around a single male (Goyes Vallejos 2017). Males guard small clutches of eggs under dead leaves and carry the tadpoles to small rain pools where they develop.
It is patchily distributed, but can be locally abundant and easy to record in suitable habitat (Indonesian Red List Assessment Workshop May 2017, I. Das pers. comm. March 2018). In the Philippines, it is rarely found and when found, only a few individuals are recorded (A. Diesmos pers. comm. March 2018). Due to ongoing decline in the quality and extent of its habitat, the population is suspected to be decreasing.
The principal threat to the species in Indonesia and the Philippines is rapid clear-cutting of lowland tropical rainforest in forest concession land and for oil palm plantations (Indonesia Red List Assessment Workshop May 2017, Philippines Red List Assessment Workshop May 2017). In eastern Sabah, the expansion of oil palm plantations presents a threat to the species' habitat, however the species is adequately protected in several national parks (P. Yambun pers. comm. January 2018).
The range of this species includes several protected areas. In Kalimantan, it occurs in Gunung Nyiut Nature Reserve, Raya Pasi Nature Reserve, Bukit Batikap Protected Forest, Bukit Baka Bukit Raya National Park, Betung Kerihun National Park and Kayan Mentarang National Park. In Sabah, it occurs in Kinabalu National Park and Crocker Range National Park. In Brunei, it occurs in Ulu Temburong National Park.
The most important conservation measure is to ensure protection of the remaining lowland rainforests of Palawan and Borneo.
More information is needed on this species' taxonomic status, distribution, population status, and trends.
Red List Status
Least Concern (LC)
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution and presumed large population.
The taxonomic status of the Palawan and Bornean subpopulations needs to be clarified. There is ongoing taxonomic work taking place on the Bornean species, which is likely to result in the description of new species (I. Das pers. comm. March 2018).
IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2018. Limnonectes palavanensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T58362A114915470. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T58362A114915470.en .Downloaded on 23 January 2019