Limnonectes macrodon
family: Dicroglossidae
subfamily: Dicroglossinae

© 2016 Dr. Joachim Nerz (1 of 8)
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Vulnerable (VU)
Other International Status None
National Status None
Regional Status None

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Indonesia


View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.


From the IUCN Red List Species Account:


Range Description

This species is found throughout Java and Lampung Province in the south of Sumatra, Indonesia. It has also been found at Napal Licin in Kerinci Seblat National Park in Sumatra (Kurniati 2008). It occurs up to at least 700 m asl.

Habitat and Ecology

This species inhabits forested areas near streams. It can survive in secondary forest and disturbed habitats (including irrigation ditches and the campus of Bogor Agricultural University in Java - Indonesia Red List Assessment Workshop May 2017), where suitable canopy cover remains. It is common in strong water throughout Java (H. Kurniati pers. comm. May 2017). Breeding takes place in streams by larval development.


This species is generally considered to be uncommon, though not rare. Individuals are often seen in numbers of one to three individuals (Indonesia Red List Assessment Workshop May 2017). Surveys in May-June 2011 and June 2012 at Kali Kunung on the slopes of Mount Merapi, in Cangkringan District, Sleman Regency, D.I. Yogyakarta Province on Java failed to record this species (H.A. Asti pers. comm. November 2017). However, surveys carried out in 2017 at the same location involving three people searching over the period of two hours, encountered three individuals in 30 minutes within 50 m (H.A. Asti pers. comm. November 2017).

Population Trend


Major Threats

The major threats to this species are habitat destruction (due to agriculture and subsistence wood collection), and water pollution. It is exploited as a food source, although this is not thought to be a major threat, and animals throughout all of Java are found in international trade.

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species occurs in Ujung Kulon National Park, Halimun Salak National Park, Gede Pangrango National Park, Gunung Ceremai National Park (Riyanto 2008) and Kerinci Seblat National Park (Kurniati 2008). 

Conservation Needed
The harvest of this species from the wild needs to be managed in a sustainable manner, and further habitat protection is required.

Red List Status

Vulnerable (VU)


Listed as Least Concern in view of its relatively wide distribution, tolerance of a degree of habitat modification and presumed large population.

Taxonomic Notes

This species is here considered to be restricted to Java and Sumatra. Records from mainland Southeast Asia are referred to Limnonectes blythii. Records of this species from the Andaman Islands in India belong to an undescribed species (I. Das pers. comm.). An old record from Sikkim in north-east India cannot be traced to a specimen and is not considered here to belong to this species (I. Das pers. comm.).


IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2018. Limnonectes macrodon. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T58351A114921568. .Downloaded on 21 January 2019


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