This species is currently known from approximately 100–1,200 m Asl in southeastern Thailand in Ok Yam, and the Islands of Koh Chang, Koh Kut and Koh Mehsi (Smith 1922, Taylor 1962), as well the Cardamom Mountains of south-western Cambodia (Ohler et al. 2002, Stuart and Emmett 2006). These may not represent the actual limits of the species' range as similar habitat and elevations to those in its known localities occur in adjacent parts of Trat and Chanthaburi Provinces, mainland Thailand. Further surveys in these areas may uncover its presence, therefore its range has been projected beyond known sites to include these areas of suitable habitat. This species' estimated EOO is 52,101 km2, which consists of four threat-defined locations.
Habitat and Ecology
This species is associated with evergreen forest and has mostly been observed adjacent to forest streams (Ohler et al. 2002, Stuart and Emmett 2006), however observations of the species have also occurred in forest away from water (Ohler et al. 2002), and around flowing seeps in grassy fields (Stuart and Emmett 2006). In Cambodia, reproduction occurs towards the end of the dry season; males have been observed chorusing around slow-flowing, forested stream sections in March (Ohler et al. 2002). The species presumably lays eggs in streams and has a free-living larval stage, as do most other Limnonectes. Habitat throughout much of this species' range is undergoing a continuing decline in quality associated with a number of anthropogenic processes (Ohler et al. 2002, Bradfield and Daltry 2009, Sodhi et al. 2009), and individuals have been observed in disturbed habitats (Stuart and Emmett 2006).
Little is known about the size of this species' population except that it has been detected in a number of surveys (Smith 1922, Taylor 1962, Ohler et al. 2002, Stuart and Emmett 2006), and described as abundant in the Cardamom Mountains of Cambodia (Steven Swan pers. comm. date unknown). The species' population trends are unknown, however deforestation continues to affect habitat in its range (Ohler et al. 2002, Bradfield and Daltry 2009, Sodhi et al. 2009) and is very likely causing declines. Surveys are needed to determine its relative abundance and population trends.
Habitat loss and degradation due to rapidly expanding agriculture is an ongoing threat to biodiversity throughout Southeast Asia (Sodhi et al. 2009). Commercial logging and palm oil production are particularly implicated as drivers of high deforestation rates across much of the species' range (Ohler et al. 2002, Sodhi et al. 2009). In southwestern Cambodia other causes of forest loss are the illegal removal of certain tree species for the harvest and refinement of safrole oil as well as increasing human settlement, both of which are ongoing within protected areas (Ohler et al. 2002, Bradfield and Daltry 2009). This species is very likely threatened to some degree by habitat loss. Due to its large body size, this species may be harvested for food (Rowley et al. 2010).
This species is known from a number of protected areas including the Central Cardamoms Protected Forest, Bokor National Park and Kirirom National Park in Cambodia (Stuart and Emmet 2006), as well as Koh Chang National Park in Thailand (Smith 1922, Taylor 1962). A number of other protected areas are included in the species predicted range; it may be present in some of these also. The species is protected by law in Thailand under the Wild Animals Reservation and Protection Act 1992.
Addressing the lack of data is the next step towards ensuring this species' long-term persistence; further research on its true distribution, life history, threats, rates of harvest from the wild, and the size and trends of its population would inform conservation decisions.
Red List Status
Least Concern (LC)
Listed as Least Concern as this species is relatively widespread, with an estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) of 52,101 km2.
We follow Ohler et al. (2002) in treating Limnonectes poilani as a species distinct from L. kohchangae.
IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2017. Limnonectes kohchangae. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T41238A87509537. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-2.RLTS.T41238A87509537.en .Downloaded on 18 February 2019