Limnonectes ingeri
family: Dicroglossidae
subfamily: Dicroglossinae

© 2012 Nathan Litjens (1 of 3)

Frogs of Borneo account.

Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Near Threatened (NT)
Other International Status None
National Status None
Regional Status None

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia


View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.


From the IUCN Red List Species Account:


Range Description

This species has been found at many localities in the northern portion of Borneo and scattered localities in Kalimantan, below 300 m asl. In Sabah, it has been recorded from Crocker Range National Park (Das 2006, Boon Hee and Mohamed 2012), Tabin Wildlife Reserve, Malinau Basin Conservation Area (Boon Hee and Mohamed 2012), Danum Valley Conservation Area (Sheridan et al. 2012), Mandamai Pitas Forestry Area, Imbak Canyon Conservation Area (Malaysia Red List Assessment Workshop January 2018), Membakut (Inger et al. 2005), and Balambangan Island (Zainudin 2011). In Sarawak, it occurs in scattered lowland localities, including Gunung Mulu National Park, Lambar Hills National Park, Bako National Park, Niah National Park, Kanowit and Lanjak Entimau Wildlife Sanctuary (Malaysia Red List Assessment Workshop January 2018). In Kalimantan, it is known from Kayan Mentarong National Park, Bukit Peninjau, Sungai Ngaung Tapah, and Sungai Tayan (Karimata Island; Indonesia Red List Assessment Workshop May 2017). In Brunei, one adult specimen was recorded in the buffer zone of Brunei's Ulu Temburong National Park in 2007, and the subsequent immigration of this species into the core zone of the park is thought to have been facilitated by the construction of a road through park's buffer zone (Konopik et al. 2014). It is also known from a specimen from Bukit Patoi Reserve in Brunei (I. Das unpubl. data March 2018), though its origin at this site is uncertain. It is likely to occur a little more widely than current records suggest, especially in between known sites.

Habitat and Ecology

This species is usually seen along clear, slow-flowing, sandy-bottomed or slightly silty streams in primary or slightly disturbed lowland rainforest, as well as, cocoa plantations. It sometimes also occurs in swampy areas. In Ulu Temburong National Park, it was abundant in dammed-up ponds and altered stream sections, suggesting some tolerance for habitat modification, and it appears to have the ability to colonize new areas of riparian habitat (Konopik et al. 2014). Adults feed on large prey, including other frogs and small reptiles. Larvae develop in quiet side pools of streams.


It is locally common throughout its range.

Population Trend


Major Threats

The major threat to the species is habitat loss due to the extensive logging and oil palm plantations that is taking place within much of its range (Indonesia Red List Assessment Workshop May 2017). While it can tolerate some degree of habitat disturbance, it is unlikely to tolerate extensive forest degradation from logging and expanding oil palm plantations. In Sabah, the species is adequately protected and there are no threats (P. Yambun pers. comm. January 2018). As it is quite large, local people often hunt this species for food, and its long life cycle and small clutch size make it particularly vulnerable to overharvesting.

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
In Sabah, it has been recorded from Crocker Range National Park, Danum Valley Conservation Area, Imbak Canyon Conservation Area,  Malinau Basin Conservation Area, Tabin Wildlife Reserve, and Mandamai Pitas Forestry Area (Malaysia Red List Assessment Workshop January 2018). In Sarawak, it occurs in Lanjak Entimau Wildlife Sanctuary, Gunung Mulu National Park, Lambar Hills National Park, Bako National Park, and Niah National Park. In Kalimantan, it occurs in Kayan Mentarang National Park.

Conservation Needed
The continued management of current protected areas is necessary for the conservation of this species in Sabah. Effective preservation of lowland forest is needed to conserve this species because oil palm plantations are encroaching into protected areas in Kalimantan (Indonesia Red List Assessment Workshop May 2017). Some oil palm companies and forestry companies designate High Conservation Value areas, which is required by some financial institutions providing loans. However, not all lenders require these areas to be set aside and the habitat within the HCVs could disappear if the lender or requirements change (Indonesia Red List Assessment Workshop May 2017).

Research Needed
Further work is required to improve the understanding of the species' population size, distribution and trends.

Red List Status

Near Threatened (NT)


Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance to a degree of habitat modification, and presumed large population.


IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2018. Limnonectes ingeri. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T58341A114921214. .Downloaded on 18 January 2019


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