Hydromantes supramontis (Lanza, Nascetti & Bullini, 1986)
Supramonte Cave Salamander, Geotritone del Supramonte, Salamandra cavernicola del Supramonte
© 2008 Franco Andreone (1 of 20)
Coloration highly variable, even within populations, as in other Hydromantes species. Base color from dark brown to black, with spotted, blotched or marbled pattern. Pattern may be in yellow, gray-green or olive. Some individuals have an entirely yellow dorsum (the "flavus"-type). A dark V, inverted V or X-shaped pattern can be present in the neck. Rarely there is a streak, continuous or not, alongside the flanks stretching from the nares or eyes to the tail base. The ventral side is bright and sometimes translucent, showing the abdominal organs and their contents. Although the central part of the venter is usually plain, a brown or black spotted, blotched, marbled or reticulated throat, venter and tail may also be present (Boehme et al 1999).
Distribution and Habitat
Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Italy
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Salamanders of the genus Hydromantes are the most extreme amphibian specialists at capturing prey with their tongues. Members of this genus not only have the longest tongues, but launch the tongue and the entire tongue skeleton out of the mouth ballistically (not simply by protrusion) (Deban et al. 2007; Deban et al. 1997). The tongue skeleton fires out well past the point where the protractor muscles are able to exert force, thus becoming a projectile (Deban et al. 1997). For Hydromantes supramontis, the tongue is extruded up to 60 mm (80% of body length) in less than 20 milliseconds, and the cartilaginous tongue skeleton shoots completely out of the mouth. This ability to shoot part of the visceral skeleton completely outside of the body is known only in certain plethodontid salamanders (Deban et al. 1997).
This species is a direct developer with a small clutch size (Stuart et al. 2008).
Trends and Threats
Possible reasons for amphibian decline
General habitat alteration and loss
Boehme, W., Grossenbacher, K., and Thiesmeier, B. (1999). Handbuch der Reptilien und Amphibien Europas, band 4/I:Schwanzlurche (Urodela). Aula-Verlag, Wiesbaden.
Deban, S. M., O’Reilly, J. C., Dicke, U., and van Leeuwen, J. L. (2007). ''Extremely high-power tongue projection in plethodontid salamanders.'' The Journal of Experimental Biology, 210, 655-667.
Deban, S., Wake, D. B., and Roth, G. (1997). ''Salamander with a ballistic tongue.'' Nature, 389, 27-28.
Gasc, J.-P. (1997). Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles in Europe. Societas Europaea Herpetologica, Bonn, Germany.
Nöllert, A. and Nöllert, C. (1992). Die Amphibien Europas. Franckh-Kosmos Verlags-GmbH and Company, Stuttgart.
Stuart, S., Hoffmann, M., Chanson, J., Cox, N., Berridge, R., Ramani, P., Young, B. (eds) (2008). Threatened Amphibians of the World. Lynx Edicions, IUCN, and Conservation International, Barcelona, Spain; Gland, Switzerland; and Arlington, Virginia, USA.
Stumpel-Rieks, S. E. (1992). Nomina Herpetofaunae Europaeae. AULA-Verlag, Wiesbaden.
Voesenek, L.A.C., van Rooy, P.T.J.C. and Strijbosch, H. (1987). ''Some autecological data on the urodeles of Sardinia.'' Amphibia-Reptilia, 8, 307-314.
Originally submitted by: Arie van der Meijden (first posted 1999-12-08)
Edited by: Kellie Whittaker, Michelle Koo (2021-01-22)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2021 Hydromantes supramontis: Supramonte Cave Salamander <https://amphibiaweb.org/species/4080> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed May 29, 2023.
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2023. <https://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 29 May 2023.
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