Rhinella nesiotes
family: Bufonidae
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Endangered (EN)
Other International Status None
National Status None
Regional Status None

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Peru


View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.


From the IUCN Red List Species Account:


Range Description

This species is known only from the vicinity of the type locality of Camp Laguna, west slope of Serrania de Sira, Huánuco Region, Peru. The type specimen was recorded at 1,280 m asl, but the species may well occur from 600 to 2,000 m asl. It presumably ranges more widely than has been mapped, but it is nonetheless likely to be endemic to the Serrania de Sira. The extent of occurrence (EOO) of its current known range is 65 km2, which is thought to represent a single threat-defined location.

Habitat and Ecology

This semi-arboreal species inhabits premontane and montane forest on an isolated mountain ridge of the upper Amazon Basin. It is generally caught on leaves or inside bromeliads (G. Chávez pers. comm. February 2018). Nothing is known about its breeding strategy, although it has been suggested that it breeds by direct development (Duellman and Toft 1979). It is not known whether it can withstand any anthropogenic disturbance.


The species is locally common (G. Chávez pers. comm. February 2018). It was often found during surveys between July and August in 2010, November 2013, and June 2014, in the Cordillera del Sira, with a maximum density of seven individuals over eight person-hours of search effort (D. Rodríguez pers. comm. April 2017, G. Chávez pers. comm. February 2018). The current population trend is unknown.

Population Trend


Major Threats

The area where this species occurs is relatively remote which affords it some level of protection. Illegal logging, coca plantations, cattle farming, subsistence farming, and illegal mining have been documented as taking place in the Sira region and there are concerns that these are also occurring within the boundaries of the Reserva Comunal El Sira (Exploration Sira). However, these activities are predominantly taking place at lower elevations, outside of the species' range. If illegal loggers manage to reach the steep, montane areas where this species occurs in the future, it could be devastating to the species (G. Chávez pers. comm. February 2018).

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species occurs in Reserva Comunal El Sira, an indigenous people's reserve.

Conservation Needed
Continued maintenance of this, and other remaining habitat in the Serrania de Sira, is necessary.

Research Needed
More information is needed on this species' distribution, population status, ecology, and threats.

Red List Status

Endangered (EN)


Listed as Vulnerable since this species has only been found at one location within Reserva Comunal El Sira. While it is locally common and there are no major ongoing threats at present, should logging activities encroach into this species' range in the future they could have devastating impacts on the species within a very short period of time.


IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2018. Rhinella nesiotes. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T54715A89197422. .Downloaded on 17 January 2019


IUCN Terms of Use