This toad is easily identifiable by its small size and green coloration. The head is wedge-shaped, and is noticeably flattened. The cranial crests are reduced and are spotted with a discontinous series of black-tipped warts. In males, the throat coloration is dusky or black, whereas in females, it is yellow or white. Males are slightly smaller than females, measuring approximately 35 mm SVL, where females are approximately 36.5 mm SVL (Degenhardt et al. 1996).
The tadpole of Anaxyrus debilis has a rounded body, and the anal tube opening is found on the right side of the tail fin. The eyes are situated dorsally, and the tail fins are only moderately developed. The abdomen is black with golden flecks. Even when they are well grown, they are relatively transparent (Degenhardt et al. 1996).
Distribution and Habitat
Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Mexico, United States
U.S. state distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Arizona, Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas
This frog lives in arid to semi-arid land. Its range includes the central third of Texas and Oklahoma down to Mexico (Bartlett and Bartlett 1999).
It can also be found in southeastern Colorado, ranging from Kanas to Zacatecas and from southeastern Arizona to eastern Texas (Degenhardt et al. 1996).
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
A. debilis breeds in shallow rain pools or intermittent streams. Toads gather at the breeding areas when the summer rains arrive, usually during the first week of July. Males situate themselves in or around the ponds, and call to the females. The breeding period usually lasts approximately 2.6 days. Metamorphosis takes place in late July. Studies have shown that A. debilis requires temperatures of 18.2° to 33.8° C (Degenhardt et al. 1996).
Trends and Threats
Although A. debilis is secretive and is not usually seen, it is, overall, a common species (Bartlett and Bartlett 1999).
Bartlett, R. D., and Bartlett, P. P. (1999). A Field Guide to Texas Reptiles and Amphibians. Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, Texas.
Degenhardt, W.G., Painter, C.W., and Price, A.H. (1996). Amphibians and Reptiles of New Mexico. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.
Estrada, A.R. (1990). ''Las puestas de Eleutherodactylus varians (Gundlach et Peters).'' Biología, IV(2), 163-167.
Originally submitted by: Theresa Ly (first posted 2001-04-25)
Edited by: Tate Tunstall, Kellie Whittaker (2012-08-15)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2012 Anaxyrus debilis: Green Toad <https://amphibiaweb.org/species/159> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Sep 24, 2023.
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2023. <https://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 24 Sep 2023.
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