AmphibiaWeb - Craugastoridae
AMPHIBIAWEB

Craugastoridae

123 species in 2 genera

Commonly Called Fleshbelly Frogs, Brittle-Belly Frogs, Robber Frogs


Craugastor laticeps
Photo by Julian C. Lee
(Click for family gallery)

The family Craugastoridae consists of direct developing frogs, with a disjunct distribution; the genus Craugastor extends from the southwestern United States through Mexico and Central America and into northwestern South America, while the genus Haddadus is found in southeastern Brazil. The divergence is thought to have occurred between 31 and 59 million years ago, before the major Andean uplift. The organization of the family has a complicated history with some including Strabomantidae, Strabomantinae, Eleutherodactylidae, Ceuthomantinae or Holoadeninae with conflicting evidence for the superfamily of Brachycephaloidea. The sister group to Craugastoridae is Strabomantidae.

Members of this family range in size from 18 mm snout-vent length in female Craugastor pygmaeus to 110 mm in female Craugastor pelorus. Most species occur in the leaf litter of forest floors although some species occurs in more rocky outcrops (Craugastor augusti).

Several species of this group are believed extinct: Craugastor chrysozetetes from Honduras and Craugastor escoces from Costa Rica, among others which have not been seen in the wild for decades despite extensive field efforts.

Written by AmphibiaWeb

Notable Family Characteristics

  • Terrestrial, occurring in the leaf litter or along streams in forests, with one species known from rocky cliffs (Craugastor augusti)
  • Axillary amplexus
  • Direct development, with eggs deposited terrestrially or arboreally
  • Many species with some form of parental care (Savage 2002)
  • Morphological characters include: 1) Finger I longer than Finger II, in most species; 2) unwebbed fingers; 3) lack of prominent external glands on the body; 4) digit tips expanded into pads having circummarginal grooves; 5) inner and outer metatarsal tubercles present; 6) tympanic membrane and annulus usually distinct (Hedges et al. 2008).
  • Osteological characters include: 1) cartilaginous sternum; 2) vertebral shield not present; 3) transverse processes of posterior presacral vertebrae not broadly expanded; 4) widely spaced cervical cotyles; 5) eight presacral vertebrae, with Presacrals I and II not fused; 6) omosternum present; 7) sacral diapophyses rounded or barely dilated; 8) maxillary arch usually dentate, with blunt, pedicellate teeth; 9) alary processes of premaxillae are broad at base, usually directed dorsally or posterodorsally; 10) palatal shelf of premaxilla usually broad, indented or not; 11) pars facialis of maxilla usually deep, not exostosed; 12) palatal shelf of maxilla moderately broad, may bear pterygoid process or not; 13) maxillary arch complete; maxillae taper posteriorly; quadratojugal slender; 14) nasals usually large with broad median contact; not usually in contact with maxillae or pterygoids; not in contact with frontoparietals; 15) frontoparietal fontanelle usually absent; 16) frontoparietals usually not exostosed; cranial crests present or not; 17) cranial elements not co-ossified with overlying skin; 18) frontoparietals fused with prootics or not; 19) temporal arcade absent; 20) carotid artery passing dorsal to cranial elements; 21) zygomatic ramus of squamosal broad to slender, usually not in contact with maxilla; 22) squamosal-maxilla angle 44-67° ; 23) columella present; fenestra ovalis directed laterally; 24) broad neopalatines; 25) sphenethmoid entire; 26) anterior ramus of parasphenoid not keeled; 27) parasphenoid alae at right angle to axis of skull or deflected posteriorly, usually not overlapped by pterygoids; 28) pterygoid without ventral flange; 29) occipital condyles widely separated medially; 30) odontoids lacking; 31) T-shaped terminal phalanges; 32) three phalanges in Finger IV; 33) Toe I fully developed and free; 34) mandibular ramus of trigeminal nerve passing lateral to the m. adductor mandibulae ("S" condition) in Haddadus, passing medially ("E" condition) in Craugastor (Hedges et al. 2008).
  • Distribution limited to southwestern United States through Mexico and Central America and into northwestern South America (Craugastor) as well as southeastern Brazil (Haddadus)
Craugastoridae Richness map

Cartography Credit: Zoe Yoo, UC Berkeley
Range maps sources: AmphibiaWeb, UC Berkeley, and IUCN RedList

Relevant Reference

Hedges, S. B., Duellman, W. E., and Heinicke, M. P. (2008). New World direct-developing frogs (Anura: Terrarana): Molecular phylogeny, classification, biogeography, and conservation. Zootaxa 1737: 1-182.

Pough, F. H., R. M. Andrews, M. L. Crump, A. H. Savitzky, K. D. Wells, and M. C. Brandley. 2015. Herpetology. Fourth Edition. Massachusetts: Sinauer.

Savage, J. (2002). The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica. University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London.

Vitt, L. J., and J. P. Caldwell. 2013. Herpetology. An Introductory Biology of Amphibians and Reptiles. Fourth Edition. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Genus Craugastor (120 species)
Craugastor chingopetaca no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor evanesco no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor gutschei no account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor metriosistus no account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor montanus no account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Campbellius) adamastus no account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Campbellius) chrysozetetes account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Campbellius) cruzi no account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Campbellius) daryi no account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Campbellius) epochthidius no account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Campbellius) fecundus no account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Campbellius) matudai no account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Campbellius) milesi account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Campbellius) myllomyllon no account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Campbellius) omoaensis no account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Campbellius) saltuarius no account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Campbellius) stadelmani no account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Campbellius) trachydermus no account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) aenigmaticus no account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) amniscola no account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) anciano no account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) andi no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) angelicus no account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) aphanus no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) aurilegulus no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) azueroensis no account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) berkenbuschii no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) blairi no account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) bransfordii no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) brocchi account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) castanedai no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) catalinae no account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) chac no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) charadra no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) coffeus no account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) crassidigitus account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) cuaquero no account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) emcelae no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) emleni no account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) escoces no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) fitzingeri account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) fleischmanni no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) gabbi no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) gollmeri no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) greggi no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) gulosus no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) hobartsmithi no account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) inachus no account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) laevissimus no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) laticeps no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) lauraster no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) lineatus no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) loki no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) longirostris no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) megacephalus account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) melanostictus no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) merendonensis no account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) mexicanus no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) mimus no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) monnichorum no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) noblei no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) obesus no account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) occidentalis no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) olanchano no account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) omiltemanus no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) opimus no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) palenque no account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) pechorum no account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) pelorus no account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) persimilis no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) phasma no account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) podiciferus no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) polyptychus no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) pozo no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) psephosypharus no account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) punctariolus no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) pygmaeus no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) raniformis no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) ranoides account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) rayo no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) rhodopis no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) rhyacobatrachus no account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) rivulus no account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) rostralis no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) rugosus no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) rugulosus account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) rupinius no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) sabrinus no account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) sagui no account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) saltator no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) sandersoni no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) stejnegerianus no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) tabasarae no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) talamancae no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) taurus no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) underwoodi account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) vocalis no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) vulcani no account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Craugastor) zunigai no account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Hylactophryne) alfredi no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Hylactophryne) augusti account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Hylactophryne) batrachylus no account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Hylactophryne) bocourti no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Hylactophryne) campbelli no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Hylactophryne) cyanochthebius no account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Hylactophryne) decoratus no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Hylactophryne) galacticorhinus no account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Hylactophryne) glaucus no account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Hylactophryne) guerreroensis no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Hylactophryne) megalotympanum no account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Hylactophryne) nefrens no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Hylactophryne) polymniae no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Hylactophryne) silvicola no account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Hylactophryne) spatulatus no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Hylactophryne) stuarti no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Hylactophryne) tarahumaraensis no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Hylactophryne) taylori no account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Hylactophryne) uno no account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Hylactophryne) xucanebi no account photos no sound/video
Craugastor (Hylactophryne) yucatanensis no account photos no sound/video

Genus Haddadus (3 species)
Haddadus aramunha no account photos no sound/video
Haddadus binotatus no account photos sound/video
Haddadus plicifer no account no photos no sound/video


Citation: AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: AmphibiaWeb. Available: https://amphibiaweb.org/. (Accessed:

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