AMPHIBIAWEB

Craugastoridae

124 species in 4 genera

Commonly Called Fleshbelly Frogs, Brittle-Belly Frogs, Robber Frogs


Craugastor laticeps
Photo by Julian C. Lee
(Click for family gallery)

The family Craugastoridae consists of direct developing frogs, with a disjunct distribution; the genus Craugastor extends from the southwestern United States through Mexico and Central America and into northwestern South America, while the genus Haddadus is found in southeastern Brazil. The divergence is thought to have occurred between 31 and 59 million years ago, before the major Andean uplift. The organization of the family has a complicated history with some including Strabomantidae, Strabomantinae, Eleutherodactylidae, Ceuthomantinae or Holoadeninae with conflicting evidence for the superfamily of Brachycephaloidea. The sister group to Craugastoridae is Strabomantidae.

Members of this family range in size from 18 mm snout-vent length in female Craugastor pygmaeus to 110 mm in female Craugastor pelorus. Most species occur in the leaf litter of forest floors although some species occurs in more rocky outcrops (Craugastor augusti).

Several species of this group are believed extinct: Craugastor chrysozetetes from Honduras and Craugastor escoces from Costa Rica, among others which have not been seen in the wild for decades despite extensive field efforts.

Written by AmphibiaWeb

Notable Family Characteristics

  • Terrestrial, occurring in the leaf litter or along streams in forests, with one species known from rocky cliffs (Craugastor augusti)
  • Axillary amplexus
  • Direct development, with eggs deposited terrestrially or arboreally
  • Many species with some form of parental care (Savage 2002)
  • Morphological characters include: 1) Finger I longer than Finger II, in most species; 2) unwebbed fingers; 3) lack of prominent external glands on the body; 4) digit tips expanded into pads having circummarginal grooves; 5) inner and outer metatarsal tubercles present; 6) tympanic membrane and annulus usually distinct (Hedges et al. 2008).
  • Osteological characters include: 1) cartilaginous sternum; 2) vertebral shield not present; 3) transverse processes of posterior presacral vertebrae not broadly expanded; 4) widely spaced cervical cotyles; 5) eight presacral vertebrae, with Presacrals I and II not fused; 6) omosternum present; 7) sacral diapophyses rounded or barely dilated; 8) maxillary arch usually dentate, with blunt, pedicellate teeth; 9) alary processes of premaxillae are broad at base, usually directed dorsally or posterodorsally; 10) palatal shelf of premaxilla usually broad, indented or not; 11) pars facialis of maxilla usually deep, not exostosed; 12) palatal shelf of maxilla moderately broad, may bear pterygoid process or not; 13) maxillary arch complete; maxillae taper posteriorly; quadratojugal slender; 14) nasals usually large with broad median contact; not usually in contact with maxillae or pterygoids; not in contact with frontoparietals; 15) frontoparietal fontanelle usually absent; 16) frontoparietals usually not exostosed; cranial crests present or not; 17) cranial elements not co-ossified with overlying skin; 18) frontoparietals fused with prootics or not; 19) temporal arcade absent; 20) carotid artery passing dorsal to cranial elements; 21) zygomatic ramus of squamosal broad to slender, usually not in contact with maxilla; 22) squamosal-maxilla angle 44-67° ; 23) columella present; fenestra ovalis directed laterally; 24) broad neopalatines; 25) sphenethmoid entire; 26) anterior ramus of parasphenoid not keeled; 27) parasphenoid alae at right angle to axis of skull or deflected posteriorly, usually not overlapped by pterygoids; 28) pterygoid without ventral flange; 29) occipital condyles widely separated medially; 30) odontoids lacking; 31) T-shaped terminal phalanges; 32) three phalanges in Finger IV; 33) Toe I fully developed and free; 34) mandibular ramus of trigeminal nerve passing lateral to the m. adductor mandibulae ("S" condition) in Haddadus, passing medially ("E" condition) in Craugastor (Hedges et al. 2008).
  • Distribution limited to southwestern United States through Mexico and Central America and into northwestern South America (Craugastor) as well as southeastern Brazil (Haddadus)

Relevant Reference

Hedges, S. B., Duellman, W. E., and Heinicke, M. P. (2008). New World direct-developing frogs (Anura: Terrarana): Molecular phylogeny, classification, biogeography, and conservation. Zootaxa 1737: 1-182.

Pough, F. H., R. M. Andrews, M. L. Crump, A. H. Savitzky, K. D. Wells, and M. C. Brandley. 2015. Herpetology. Fourth Edition. Massachusetts: Sinauer.

Savage, J. (2002). The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica. University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London.

Vitt, L. J., and J. P. Caldwell. 2013. Herpetology. An Introductory Biology of Amphibians and Reptiles. Fourth Edition. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Genus Craugastor (117 species)
Craugastor adamastus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor alfredi no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor amniscola no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor anciano no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor andi no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor angelicus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor aphanus no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor augusti AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor aurilegulus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor azueroensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor batrachylus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor berkenbuschii no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor bocourti no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor bransfordii no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor brocchi AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor campbelli no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor castanedai no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor catalinae no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor chac no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor charadra no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor chingopetaca no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor chrysozetetes AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor coffeus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor crassidigitus AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor cruzi no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor cuaquero no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor cyanochthebius no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor daryi no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor decoratus no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor emcelae no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor emleni no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor epochthidius no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor escoces no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor evanesco no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor fecundus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor fitzingeri AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor fleischmanni no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor gabbi no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor galacticorhinus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor glaucus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor gollmeri no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor greggi no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor guerreroensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor gulosus no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor gutschei no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor hobartsmithi no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor inachus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor jota no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor laevissimus no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor laticeps no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor lauraster no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor lineatus no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor loki no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor longirostris no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor matudai no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor megacephalus AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor megalotympanum no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor melanostictus no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor merendonensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor metriosistus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor mexicanus no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor milesi AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor mimus no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor monnichorum no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor montanus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor myllomyllon no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor nefrens no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor noblei no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor obesus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor occidentalis no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor olanchano no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor omiltemanus no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor omoaensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor opimus no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor palenque no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor pechorum no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor pelorus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor persimilis no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor phasma no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor podiciferus no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor polymniae no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor polyptychus no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor pozo no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor psephosypharus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor punctariolus no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor pygmaeus no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor raniformis no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor ranoides AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor rayo no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor rhodopis no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor rhyacobatrachus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor rivulus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor rostralis no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor rugosus no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor rugulosus AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor rupinius no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor sabrinus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor saltator no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor saltuarius no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor sandersoni no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor silvicola no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor spatulatus no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor stadelmani no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor stejnegerianus no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor stuarti no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor tabasarae no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor talamancae no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor tarahumaraensis no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor taurus no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor taylori no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor trachydermus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor underwoodi AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor uno no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor vocalis no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor vulcani no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Craugastor xucanebi no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Craugastor yucatanensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video

Genus Haddadus (3 species)
Haddadus aramunha no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Haddadus binotatus no AmphibiaWeb account photos sound/video
Haddadus plicifer no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video

Genus Tachiramantis (3 species)
Tachiramantis douglasi no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Tachiramantis lentiginosus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Tachiramantis prolixodiscus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Subfamily Pristimantinae (1 species)

Genus Oreobates (25 species)    [subfamily Pristimantinae]
Oreobates amarakaeri no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Oreobates antrum no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Oreobates ayacucho no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Oreobates barituensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Oreobates berdemenos no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Oreobates choristolemma no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Oreobates crepitans no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Oreobates cruralis no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Oreobates discoidalis no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Oreobates gemcare no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Oreobates granulosus no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Oreobates heterodactylus no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Oreobates ibischi no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Oreobates lehri no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Oreobates lundbergi no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Oreobates machiguenga no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Oreobates madidi no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Oreobates pereger no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Oreobates quixensis no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Oreobates remotus no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Oreobates sanctaecrucis no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Oreobates sanderi no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Oreobates saxatilis no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Oreobates yanucu no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Oreobates zongoensis AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video


Citation: AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: AmphibiaWeb. Available: https://amphibiaweb.org/. (Accessed:

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