AmphibiaWeb - Vitreorana gorzulae


(Translations may not be accurate.)

Vitreorana gorzulae (Ayarzagüena, 1992)
Ranita de cristal de Gorzula
family: Centrolenidae
subfamily: Centroleninae
genus: Vitreorana
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN Red List Status Account Least Concern (LC)
National Status None
Regional Status None



View distribution map in BerkeleyMapper.

Vitreorana gorzulae measures 19.2-22.5 mm SVL(Castroviejo-Fisher et al. 2009). Differs from all other species of Centrolene in having a trilobate liver covered by a white hepatic peritoneum, and a parietal peritoneum which has a small white "bib-like" anterior patch (Duellman and Señaris 2003) but is otherwise clear (Castroviejo-Fisher et al. 2009). Snout subtruncate to truncate when viewed from above, truncate to slightly sloping when viewed from the side. Distinct, small tympanum. Vomerine teeth absent. Shagreened dorsal surfaces; males also have spicules when viewed using magnification. Pericardial, hepatic, and visceral peritonea are white. Bladder is transparent. Fingers are webbed, with finger IV also having enameled postaxial fringe. Finger II is the same length as Finger I. Weakly enameled metacarpal fold is present, but ulnar fold is absent. Toes are webbed with toe V having enameled postaxial fringe. Weakly enameled metatarsal fold present, with tarsal fold absent or weakly developed. Males have a slightly enlarged prepollex with a projecting but not exposed prepollical spine, as well as a humeral spine. Males also have nuptial excrescences (Castroviejo-Fisher et al. 2009).

Dark green with scattered minute paler dots (Castroviejo-Fisher et al. 2009), or uniform, in specimens from Sierra de Lema (Duellman and Señaris 2003). Iris copper-colored with dark brown reticulations (Castroviejo-Fisher et al. 2009), or silvery-green with black reticulations in specimens from Sierra de Lema (Duellman and Señaris 2003). Pupil has an incomplete pale yellow ring around it. Hands and feet bluish green to green in color, with yellowish green digit tips. Melanophores present on fingers and toes, especially fingers III-IV and toes IV-V (Castroviejo-Fisher et al. 2009). Green bones (see Duellman 1997 for a photo) (Duellman and Señaris 2003).

Distribution and Habitat

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Guyana, Venezuela


View distribution map in BerkeleyMapper.
Found in Venezuela and Guyana, at altitudes from 450-1,850 m asl (Castroviejo-Fisher et al. 2009). Vitreorana gorzulae was originally thought to be endemic to the Auyán tepui (Bolí­var State, Venezuela) at altitudes between 1,000 and 1,900 m asl (Ayarzagüena 1992). It has since been collected at two additional Venezuelan localities, Atapare and Sierra de Lema (Castroviejo-Fisher et al. 2009; Duellman and Señaris 2003). The Sierra de Lema slope vegetation consists of humid broadleaf evergreen montane forest (Holdridge 1967; Huber and Alarcon 1988). C. gorzulae also occurs in Guyana (Peters Mountain, Kaieteur National Park, and Mount Maringma), and is thought likely to occur in adjacent Brazil, though as yet there are no records from Brazil (Castroviejo-Fisher et al. 2009).

Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

This species is small and specialized for arboreality through derived means of camouflage (such as translucence and green bile/green coloration of visceral and osteological tissues). Specimens have been collected perching on leaves and branches of vegetation over streams in montane forest (Castroviejo-Fisher et al. 2009).

Reproduction is seasonal. Males call from the upper side of leaves. The advertisement call has a single pulsed note, sounding like a chirp (3-7 pulses/call), of duration 0.02 to 0.05 s and a dominant frequency of 4416.97 to 5157.48 Hz. The call is audible only at short distances, of 10 m or less. Eggs are laid clutches of 15-22, on mossy branches or in between leaves, overhanging streams at 1.5-2.0 m above water. Males do not appear to guard the clutch. Upon hatching, larvae drop into the water below where they continue development (Castroviejo-Fisher et al. 2009; Kok and Castroviejo-Fisher 2008).

On the Auyán tepui this species is common. It may occur on other tepuis (Stuart et al. 2008).

Trends and Threats
Occurs within one protected area, Parque Nacional Canaima (which contains Auyán tepui, the type locality) (Stuart et al. 2008)

Possible reasons for amphibian decline

General habitat alteration and loss
Habitat modification from deforestation, or logging related activities


Ayarzagüena, J. (1992). ''Los centrolenidos de la Guayana Venezolana.'' Publicaciones de la Asociación de los Amigos de Doñana, 1, 1-48.

Castroviejo-Fisher, S., Guayasamin, J. M., and Kok, P. J. R. (2009). ''Species status of Centrolene lema Duellman and Señaris, 2003 revealed by integrative taxonomy.'' Zootaxa, 1980, 16-28.

Duellman, W. E. (1997). ''Amphibians of La Escalera Region, southeastern Venezuela: taxonomy, ecology, and biogeography.'' Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas, 2, 1-52.

Duellman, W. E., and Senaris, J. C. (2003). ''A new species of glass frog (Anura: Centrolenidae) from the Venezuelan Guayana.'' Herpetologica, 59(2), 247-252.

Holdridge, L. R. (1967). Life Zone Ecology. Tropical Science Center, San Jose, Costa Rica.

Huber, O. and Alarcon, C. (1988). Mapa de vegetacion de Venezuela. MARNR and the Nature Conservancy, Caracas, Venezuela.

Kok, P. J. R., and Castroviejo-Fisher, S. (2008). ''Glassfrogs (Anura: Centrolenidae) of Kaieteur National Park, Guyana, with notes on the distribution and taxonomy of some species of the family in the Guiana Shield.'' Zootaxa, 1680, 25–53..

Stuart, S., Hoffmann, M., Chanson, J., Cox, N., Berridge, R., Ramani, P., Young, B. (eds) (2008). Threatened Amphibians of the World. Lynx Edicions, IUCN, and Conservation International, Barcelona, Spain; Gland, Switzerland; and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Originally submitted by: Raul E. Diaz (first posted 2009-01-19)
Edited by: Keith Lui (2009-06-24)

Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2009 Vitreorana gorzulae: Ranita de cristal de Gorzula <> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed May 22, 2024.

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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2024. <> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 22 May 2024.

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