AMPHIBIAWEB

Centrolenidae

(see family information on Tree of Life site)
158 species in 12 genera

Commonly Called Glass Frogs


Hyalinobatrachium fleischmanni
Photo by Twan Leenders
(Click for family gallery)

Centrolenid frogs derive their common name from the transparent ventral skin, through which internal organs can be seen in many species. Most Centrolenids are a shade of green, ranging from light lime green to dark green. Members of this family also have green bones as a result of green bile salts. Studies have shown that glass frogs contain a unique pigment in their skin that reflects the same wavelength infrared radiation that plants do, possibly another adaptation for concealment. Most glass frogs are small (30 mm snout-vent length) with one exception, Centrolene geckoideum, which attains a length of 77 mm. Eggs are usually deposited on rocks or plants overhanging water, and are sometimes guarded by territorial males. The larvae drop into the water upon hatching and burrow in the sand or detritus at the bottom.

Species of this group occur from Central America south through Venezuela, Bolivia, Argentina, and southern Brazil in high montane forests with streams.

News Highlight
October 23, 2017: Parental care in frogs is a fascinating, yet understudied facet of amphibian behavioral ecology. This behavior is rare, in fact, only 10-20% of anurans. Delia et al. (2017) recently explored the functional dynamics, sex-role characteristics, and evolution of parental care in glass frogs of the family Centrolenidae. Their integrative study of 40 species combined behavioral field observations, maternal commitment assays, disturbance trials, predation experiments, and comparative phylogenetic methods to both elucidate patterns of care, and analyze the evolution of sex-roles. Parental care was observed for all 40 species, including eight for which care has never been documented. The care-giving sex was variable across the family, and phylogenetic analyses suggested that rather than no care-to-male care transitions, male care evolved two to three times from female-only care. Moreover, they suggest that extended parental care past brooding was associated with male care state transitions.

January 25, 2016: Parental care in anurans usually takes the form of attendance of eggs. Male attendance of eggs laid on vegetation has evolved independently in two genera of the glass frogs, family Centrolenidae: within Centrolene and within Hyalinobatrachium. Valencia and Delia (2016) have discovered parental care in a third clade of centrolenids, Ikakogi tayrona, the geographically (Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia) and phylogenetically isolated sister-taxon of all other centrolenids. Unexpectedly, the attendance in Ikakogi tayrona is by females. Care functions are similar in both males and females, but females are somewhat more risk-tolerant, probably reflecting the more direct link to fitness in females. (DW)

Written by AmphibiaWeb

Notable Family Characteristics

  • Inhabits wet montane rainforests
  • Eggs are deposited on leaves, in some species overhanging water into which hatched tadpoles fall
  • Some form of parental care, from males and/or females, exhibited
  • Morphological characters uniting this clade are: 1) astragalus and calcaneum completely fused (convergent with Pelodytidae); 2) dilated medial process on third metacarpal; 3) T-shaped terminal phalanges (convergent with other groups); 4) 8 presacral vertebrae; 5) ribs absent; 6) pectoral girdle arciferal; 7) palatines present; 8) ventral side and sometimes gastrointestinal organs transparent; 9) green bones
  • Distribution limited to Central America through South America, from Venezuela south through Bolivia, Argentina, and southern Brazil

Relevant Reference

Pough, F. H., R. M. Andrews, M. L. Crump, A. H. Savitzky, K. D. Wells, and M. C. Brandley. 2015. Herpetology. Fourth Edition. Massachusetts: Sinauer.

Vitt, L. J., and J. P. Caldwell. 2013. Herpetology. An Introductory Biology of Amphibians and Reptiles. Fourth Edition. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Subfamily Centroleninae (122 species)

Genus Centrolene (34 species)    [subfamily Centroleninae]
Centrolene acanthidiocephalum no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Centrolene altitudinale no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Centrolene antioquiense no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Centrolene azulae AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Centrolene bacatum no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Centrolene ballux AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Centrolene buckleyi no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Centrolene charapita AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Centrolene condor AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Centrolene daidaleum AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Centrolene geckoideum no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Centrolene gemmatum no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Centrolene guanacarum AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Centrolene heloderma AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Centrolene hesperium no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Centrolene huilense AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Centrolene hybrida AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Centrolene lemniscatum no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Centrolene lynchi no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Centrolene medemi no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Centrolene muelleri no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Centrolene notostictum AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Centrolene paezorum no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Centrolene peristictum no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Centrolene petrophilum AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Centrolene pipilatum no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Centrolene quindianum AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Centrolene robledoi AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Centrolene sabini AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Centrolene sanchezi AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Centrolene savagei AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Centrolene scirtetes no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Centrolene solitaria AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Centrolene venezuelense no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video

Genus Chimerella (2 species)    [subfamily Centroleninae]
Chimerella corleone no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Chimerella mariaelenae no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video

Genus Cochranella (18 species)    [subfamily Centroleninae]
Cochranella balionota no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Cochranella duidaeana no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Cochranella erminea AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Cochranella euhystrix no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Cochranella euknemos AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Cochranella geijskesi no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Cochranella granulosa AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Cochranella guayasamini no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Cochranella litoralis AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Cochranella mache AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Cochranella megista no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Cochranella nola AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Cochranella ocellifera no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Cochranella phryxa AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Cochranella ramirezi AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Cochranella resplendens no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Cochranella riveroi no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Cochranella xanthocheridia AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video

Genus Espadarana (5 species)    [subfamily Centroleninae]
Espadarana andina AmphibiaWeb account photos sound/video
Espadarana audax no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Espadarana callistomma AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Espadarana durrellorum no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Espadarana prosoblepon AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video

Genus Ikakogi (1 species)    [subfamily Centroleninae]
Ikakogi tayrona AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video

Genus Nymphargus (36 species)    [subfamily Centroleninae]
Nymphargus anomalus AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Nymphargus armatus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Nymphargus bejaranoi no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Nymphargus buenaventura no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Nymphargus cariticommatus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Nymphargus caucanus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Nymphargus chami AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Nymphargus chancas no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Nymphargus cochranae no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Nymphargus cristinae AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Nymphargus garciae AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Nymphargus grandisonae no AmphibiaWeb account photos sound/video
Nymphargus griffithsi no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Nymphargus ignotus no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Nymphargus lasgralarias no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Nymphargus laurae AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Nymphargus luminosus AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Nymphargus luteopunctatus AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Nymphargus mariae AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Nymphargus megacheirus no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Nymphargus mixomaculatus no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Nymphargus nephelophila AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Nymphargus ocellatus no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Nymphargus oreonympha AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Nymphargus phenax no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Nymphargus pluvialis no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Nymphargus posadae AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Nymphargus prasinus no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Nymphargus rosada no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Nymphargus ruizi no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Nymphargus siren no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Nymphargus spilotus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Nymphargus sucre no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Nymphargus truebae no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Nymphargus vicenteruedai no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Nymphargus wileyi no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video

Genus Rulyrana (6 species)    [subfamily Centroleninae]
Rulyrana adiazeta AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Rulyrana flavopunctata no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Rulyrana mcdiarmidi no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Rulyrana saxiscandens no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Rulyrana spiculata no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Rulyrana susatamai AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video

Genus Sachatamia (5 species)    [subfamily Centroleninae]
Sachatamia albomaculata AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Sachatamia electrops no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Sachatamia ilex AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Sachatamia orejuela AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Sachatamia punctulata AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video

Genus Teratohyla (5 species)    [subfamily Centroleninae]
Teratohyla adenocheira AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Teratohyla amelie AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Teratohyla midas AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Teratohyla pulverata AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Teratohyla spinosa AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video

Genus Vitreorana (10 species)    [subfamily Centroleninae]
Vitreorana antisthenesi no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Vitreorana baliomma no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Vitreorana castroviejoi no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Vitreorana eurygnatha AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Vitreorana franciscana no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Vitreorana gorzulae AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Vitreorana helenae no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Vitreorana parvula AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Vitreorana ritae AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Vitreorana uranoscopa AmphibiaWeb account photos sound/video
Subfamily Hyalinobatrachinae (36 species)

Genus Celsiella (2 species)    [subfamily Hyalinobatrachinae]
Celsiella revocata no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Celsiella vozmedianoi no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video

Genus Hyalinobatrachium (34 species)    [subfamily Hyalinobatrachinae]
Hyalinobatrachium anachoretus no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyalinobatrachium aureoguttatum no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyalinobatrachium bergeri no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyalinobatrachium cappellei no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyalinobatrachium carlesvilai no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyalinobatrachium chirripoi AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyalinobatrachium colymbiphyllum AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyalinobatrachium dianae AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyalinobatrachium duranti no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyalinobatrachium esmeralda no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyalinobatrachium fleischmanni AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyalinobatrachium fragile no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyalinobatrachium guairarepanense no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyalinobatrachium iaspidiense AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyalinobatrachium ibama no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyalinobatrachium kawense no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyalinobatrachium lemur no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyalinobatrachium mesai no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyalinobatrachium mondolfii no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyalinobatrachium muiraquitan no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyalinobatrachium munozorum no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyalinobatrachium orientale no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyalinobatrachium orocostale no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyalinobatrachium pallidum no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyalinobatrachium pellucidum no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyalinobatrachium petersi no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyalinobatrachium ruedai no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyalinobatrachium talamancae AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyalinobatrachium tatayoi no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyalinobatrachium taylori no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyalinobatrachium tricolor no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyalinobatrachium valerioi AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyalinobatrachium vireovittatum AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyalinobatrachium yaku no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video


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