Stumpffia bishopi Rakotoarison, Glaw, Rasolonjatovo, Razafindraibe, Vences & Scherz, 2022
|Species Description: Rakotoarison A, Glaw F, Rasolonjatovo SM, Razafindraibe JH, Vences M, Scherz MD. 2022. Discovery of frogs of the Stumpffia hara species group (Microhylidae, Cophylinae) on Montagne d’Ambre in northern Madagascar, with description of a new species. Evolutionary Systematics 6(1): 21-33.|
Stumpffia bishopi can be distinguished from other Stumpffia based on morphology, coloration, and call. More specifically, S. bishopi is distinguishable from S. analamaina, S. betampona, S. contumelia, S. davidattenboroughi, S. dolchi, S. froschaueri, S. larinki, S. makira, S. madagascariensis, S. obscoena, S. pygmaea, S. spandei, S. tridactyla, and S. yanniki by its larger body size. All the species listed above are less than 14 mm whereas Stumpffia bishopi is greater than 14 mm. It is distinguishable from S. betampona, S. contumelia, S. davidattenboroughi, S. dolchi, S. garraffoi, S. makira, S. miery, S. obscoena, S. spandei, S. tetradactyla, S. tridactyla, and S. yanniki by having slightly less digital reduction, having the first finger slightly reduced. Having a second finger that is slightly shorter than its fourth finger (vs having a fourth finger subequal to the second finger in length) distinguishes S. bishopi from S. angeluci, S. maledicta, S. miovaova, and S. sorata. It can be differentiated from S. analanjirofo by having a smooth dorsum instead of a tubercular. Stumpffia bishopi has a longer foot length than S. fusca (0.62 of the snout-vent length vs 0.72 - 0.78). It is distinguishable from S. psologlossa because it has relatively larger hands (hand length to snout-vent length ratio is 0.38 as opposed to 0.18 - 0.25), lacks a dark blackish mark along its flanks, and shorter calls unpulsed calls (127 - 153 milliseconds as opposed to 791 - 871 milliseconds) as opposed to distinctly pulsed calls. Stumpffia bishopi can be differentiated from S. edmondsi, S. nigrorubra and S. pardus by having no distinct coloration on its posterior shank. Black spots on the ventral surface of S. bishopi differentiate it from S. inharana. The lack of large white markings and yellowish colors on its venter in S. bishopi distinguish it from S. grandis and S. huwei, respectively. An indistinct border between the lateral and dorsal colouration in S. bishopi distinguishes it from , S. contumelia, S. davidattenboroughi, S. madagascariensis, and S. tridactyla. Stumpffia kibome, S. meikeae, S. miovaova, S. nigriubra, and S. roseifemoralis all have red color on their ventral limbs, which S. bishopi lacks. Stumpffia bishopi has an unpulsed advertisement call whereas S. kibomena has a slightly pulsed one. It varies from S. huwei, S. kibomena, S. maledita, and S. manitika in having a longer call duration (127 - 153 milliseconds vs a duration of 70 - 124 milliseconds). Stumpffia bishopi has a longer call intervals (4388 - 6355 milliseconds vs 2143 - 2289 milliseconds) and a higher frequency range of advertisement calls ranging from 3919 - 4091 Hz vs 2842-3057 Hz than S. larinki. Lastly, S. bishopi has a shorter call duration (127- 153 ms vs 179 - 198 ms) than S. angeluci and S. madagascariensis (Rakotoarison et al. 2022).
From other members of the S. hara species group, which S. bishopi is a part, S. bishopi has a significantly smaller snout-vent length than S. be, S. hara, S. megsoni, and S. staffordi (14.2 - 16.6 mm as opposed to 19.8 - 27.9 mm). Moreover, S. be, S. hara, and S. staffordi have more expanded terminal discs on the toes and fingers. Stumpffia bishopi lacks bright reddish/orange coloration on the abdomen and limbs that distinguish it from S. be and S. megsoni. Lastly, S. bishopi has a more pronounced supratympanic fold when alive plus a dark brown coloration on the chin that distinguishes it from S. hara (Rakotoarison et al. 2022).
In life, the dorsal coloration of S. bishopi is various shades of brown while the ventral coloration is a burnt orange to taupe color with flecks of black and white covering it. The chin is dark brown. The dorsal hands inner half is consistently light. In the holotype there are distinct crossbands of the thighs. After 3.5 years in preservative, the color darkened. The dorsum becomes almost uniformly brown with some light gray areas where the lightest markings are. The white flecks on its venter are no longer visible, and the coloration of the entire venter is cream colored, interspersed with gray flecks (Rakotoarison et al. 2022).
The coloration of this species is variable. Some individuals have distinct patterning whereas some have uniform dorsal coloration. There is slight morphological variation including the shape of the first finger among the specimens collected by Rakotoarison et al. (2022). Some of the specimens have a first finger without any sign of medial swelling whereas others have a first finger that appears short because of a swollen prepollex (Rakotoarison et al. 2022).
Distribution and Habitat
Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Madagascar
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
The call of this species consists of a tonal note that is repeated at regular intervals. The quantitative intervals are as follows: note duration is 127 - 152 milliseconds, intercall intervals is 438 - 6388 ms, and the dominant frequency called at is 3919 - 4091 Hz (Rakotoarison et al. 2022).
Rakotoarison et al. (2022) wrote that they looked both during the night and the day while using playbacks of calls to assist them in locating the species. This implies that they were calling and active at all hours of the day. However, it is recommended that more research goes into their life history before that is assumed.
Trends and Threats
Maximum Likelihood of 16S rRNA place S. bishopi as sister to the clade formed by S. be, S. hara, S. megosoni, and S. staffordi and as a member of the S. hara species group (Rakotoarison et al. 2022).
The species is named in honor of the late Phil Bishop, professor emeritus at the University of Otago, who dedicated his career to the research and conservation of amphibians. The authors of the species description said he was an inspiring and enthusiastic person who was a joy to work with (Rakotoarison et al. 2022).
Originally submitted by: Benjamin Levin (2023-07-27)
Distribution by: Benjamin Levin (updated 2023-07-27)
Life history by: Benjamin Levin (updated 2023-07-27)
Comments by: Benjamin Levin (updated 2023-07-27)
Edited by: Ann T. Chang (2023-07-27)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2023 Stumpffia bishopi <https://amphibiaweb.org/species/9509> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Sep 27, 2023.
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2023. <https://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 27 Sep 2023.
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